Effect of encapsulation on plasminogen activator delivery to the microcirculation and its implications for bleeding

A. S. Thummala, Jonathan K Leach, E. Patterson, E. A. O'Rear

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is known that encapsulation can alter the delivery of plasminogen activators by flow to accelerate fibrinolysis while other experimental studies suggest encapsulation may reduce the risk of hemorrhage with administration of the agent. The aim of this research is to resolve the effect of encapsulation on fibrinolysis and bleeding in the microcirculation. METHODS: An established rabbit model of fibrinolytic hemorrhage was utilized to explore the potential of encapsulation to limit bleeding. Equal dosages of free or microencapsulated streptokinase (MESK) were infused to initiate thrombolysis of small vessel clots while tracking blood loss. RESULTS: Compared to free streptokinase, significant improvements in bleeding were observed with MESK as demonstrated by (1) delayed onset of bleeding, (2) shortened duration, and (3) reduction in the volume of lost blood, consistent with less systemic fibrinogen degradation. CONCLUSIONS: Findings demonstrate that encapsulation of streptokinase can inhibit clot lysis in small vessels. Combined with prior work on accelerated thrombolysis, results suggest a time-based regimen for avoiding bleeding complications during thrombolytic therapy with encapsulated agent.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)373-379
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Drug delivery
  • fibrinolysis
  • plasminogen activator
  • thrombolysis
  • transport

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Hematology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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