Effect of early adult patterns of physical activity and television viewing on midlife cognitive function

Tina D. Hoang, Jared Reis, Na Zhu, David R. Jacobs, Lenore J. Launer, Rachel Whitmer, Stephen Sidney, Kristine Yaffe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

IMPORTANCE Sedentary behaviors and physical inactivity are not only increasing worldwide but also are critical risk factors for adverse health outcomes. Yet, few studies have examined the effects of sedentary behavior on cognition or the long-Term role of either behavior in early to middle adulthood. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between 25-year patterns of television viewing and physical activity and midlife cognition. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective study of 3247 adults (black and white races; aged 18-30 years) enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (March 25, 1985, to August 31, 2011). Data analysis was performed June 1, 2014, through April 15, 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We assessed television viewing and physical activity at repeated visits (3 assessments) over 25 years using a validated questionnaire. A 25-year pattern of high television viewing was defined as watching TV above the upper baseline quartile (>3 hours/d) for more than two-Thirds of the visits, and a 25-year pattern of low physical activity was defined as activity levels below the lower, sex-specific baseline quartile for more than two-Thirds of the of the visits.We evaluated cognitive function at year 25 using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Stroop test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. RESULTS At baseline, the mean (SD) age of the 3247 study participants was 25.1 (3.6) years, 1836 (56.5%) were female, 1771 (54.5%) were white, and 3015 (92.9%) had completed at least high school. Compared with participants with low television viewing, those with high television viewing during 25 years (353 of 3247 [10.9%]) were more likely to have poor cognitive performance (<1 SD below the race-specific mean) on the DSST and Stroop test, with findings reported as adjusted odds ratio (95%CI): DSST, 1.64 (1.21-2.23) and Stroop test, 1.56 (1.13-2.14), but not the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, adjusted for age, race, sex, educational level, smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, and hypertension. Low physical activity during 25 years in 528 of 3247 participants (16.3%) was significantly associated with poor performance on the DSST, 1.47 (1.14-1.90). Compared with participants with low television viewing and high physical activity, the odds of poor performance were almost 2 times higher for adults with both high television viewing and low physical activity in 107 of 3247 (3.3%) (DSST, 1.95 [1.19-3.22], and Stroop test, 2.20 [1.36-3.56]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE High television viewing and low physical activity in early adulthood were associated with worse midlife executive function and processing speed. This is one of the first studies to demonstrate that these risk behaviors may be critical targets for prevention of cognitive aging even before middle age.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)73-79
Number of pages7
JournalJAMA Psychiatry
Volume73
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Television
Cognition
Exercise
Stroop Test
Verbal Learning
Executive Function
Risk-Taking
Young Adult
Coronary Vessels
Body Mass Index
Smoking
Odds Ratio
Alcohols
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Prospective Studies
Hypertension
Health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Effect of early adult patterns of physical activity and television viewing on midlife cognitive function. / Hoang, Tina D.; Reis, Jared; Zhu, Na; Jacobs, David R.; Launer, Lenore J.; Whitmer, Rachel; Sidney, Stephen; Yaffe, Kristine.

In: JAMA Psychiatry, Vol. 73, No. 1, 01.01.2016, p. 73-79.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hoang, Tina D. ; Reis, Jared ; Zhu, Na ; Jacobs, David R. ; Launer, Lenore J. ; Whitmer, Rachel ; Sidney, Stephen ; Yaffe, Kristine. / Effect of early adult patterns of physical activity and television viewing on midlife cognitive function. In: JAMA Psychiatry. 2016 ; Vol. 73, No. 1. pp. 73-79.
@article{5cb7cc1e86dd4536ad83ab1c219fd183,
title = "Effect of early adult patterns of physical activity and television viewing on midlife cognitive function",
abstract = "IMPORTANCE Sedentary behaviors and physical inactivity are not only increasing worldwide but also are critical risk factors for adverse health outcomes. Yet, few studies have examined the effects of sedentary behavior on cognition or the long-Term role of either behavior in early to middle adulthood. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between 25-year patterns of television viewing and physical activity and midlife cognition. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective study of 3247 adults (black and white races; aged 18-30 years) enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (March 25, 1985, to August 31, 2011). Data analysis was performed June 1, 2014, through April 15, 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We assessed television viewing and physical activity at repeated visits (3 assessments) over 25 years using a validated questionnaire. A 25-year pattern of high television viewing was defined as watching TV above the upper baseline quartile (>3 hours/d) for more than two-Thirds of the visits, and a 25-year pattern of low physical activity was defined as activity levels below the lower, sex-specific baseline quartile for more than two-Thirds of the of the visits.We evaluated cognitive function at year 25 using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Stroop test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. RESULTS At baseline, the mean (SD) age of the 3247 study participants was 25.1 (3.6) years, 1836 (56.5{\%}) were female, 1771 (54.5{\%}) were white, and 3015 (92.9{\%}) had completed at least high school. Compared with participants with low television viewing, those with high television viewing during 25 years (353 of 3247 [10.9{\%}]) were more likely to have poor cognitive performance (<1 SD below the race-specific mean) on the DSST and Stroop test, with findings reported as adjusted odds ratio (95{\%}CI): DSST, 1.64 (1.21-2.23) and Stroop test, 1.56 (1.13-2.14), but not the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, adjusted for age, race, sex, educational level, smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, and hypertension. Low physical activity during 25 years in 528 of 3247 participants (16.3{\%}) was significantly associated with poor performance on the DSST, 1.47 (1.14-1.90). Compared with participants with low television viewing and high physical activity, the odds of poor performance were almost 2 times higher for adults with both high television viewing and low physical activity in 107 of 3247 (3.3{\%}) (DSST, 1.95 [1.19-3.22], and Stroop test, 2.20 [1.36-3.56]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE High television viewing and low physical activity in early adulthood were associated with worse midlife executive function and processing speed. This is one of the first studies to demonstrate that these risk behaviors may be critical targets for prevention of cognitive aging even before middle age.",
author = "Hoang, {Tina D.} and Jared Reis and Na Zhu and Jacobs, {David R.} and Launer, {Lenore J.} and Rachel Whitmer and Stephen Sidney and Kristine Yaffe",
year = "2016",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.2468",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "73",
pages = "73--79",
journal = "JAMA Psychiatry",
issn = "2168-622X",
publisher = "American Medical Association",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of early adult patterns of physical activity and television viewing on midlife cognitive function

AU - Hoang, Tina D.

AU - Reis, Jared

AU - Zhu, Na

AU - Jacobs, David R.

AU - Launer, Lenore J.

AU - Whitmer, Rachel

AU - Sidney, Stephen

AU - Yaffe, Kristine

PY - 2016/1/1

Y1 - 2016/1/1

N2 - IMPORTANCE Sedentary behaviors and physical inactivity are not only increasing worldwide but also are critical risk factors for adverse health outcomes. Yet, few studies have examined the effects of sedentary behavior on cognition or the long-Term role of either behavior in early to middle adulthood. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between 25-year patterns of television viewing and physical activity and midlife cognition. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective study of 3247 adults (black and white races; aged 18-30 years) enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (March 25, 1985, to August 31, 2011). Data analysis was performed June 1, 2014, through April 15, 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We assessed television viewing and physical activity at repeated visits (3 assessments) over 25 years using a validated questionnaire. A 25-year pattern of high television viewing was defined as watching TV above the upper baseline quartile (>3 hours/d) for more than two-Thirds of the visits, and a 25-year pattern of low physical activity was defined as activity levels below the lower, sex-specific baseline quartile for more than two-Thirds of the of the visits.We evaluated cognitive function at year 25 using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Stroop test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. RESULTS At baseline, the mean (SD) age of the 3247 study participants was 25.1 (3.6) years, 1836 (56.5%) were female, 1771 (54.5%) were white, and 3015 (92.9%) had completed at least high school. Compared with participants with low television viewing, those with high television viewing during 25 years (353 of 3247 [10.9%]) were more likely to have poor cognitive performance (<1 SD below the race-specific mean) on the DSST and Stroop test, with findings reported as adjusted odds ratio (95%CI): DSST, 1.64 (1.21-2.23) and Stroop test, 1.56 (1.13-2.14), but not the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, adjusted for age, race, sex, educational level, smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, and hypertension. Low physical activity during 25 years in 528 of 3247 participants (16.3%) was significantly associated with poor performance on the DSST, 1.47 (1.14-1.90). Compared with participants with low television viewing and high physical activity, the odds of poor performance were almost 2 times higher for adults with both high television viewing and low physical activity in 107 of 3247 (3.3%) (DSST, 1.95 [1.19-3.22], and Stroop test, 2.20 [1.36-3.56]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE High television viewing and low physical activity in early adulthood were associated with worse midlife executive function and processing speed. This is one of the first studies to demonstrate that these risk behaviors may be critical targets for prevention of cognitive aging even before middle age.

AB - IMPORTANCE Sedentary behaviors and physical inactivity are not only increasing worldwide but also are critical risk factors for adverse health outcomes. Yet, few studies have examined the effects of sedentary behavior on cognition or the long-Term role of either behavior in early to middle adulthood. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between 25-year patterns of television viewing and physical activity and midlife cognition. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective study of 3247 adults (black and white races; aged 18-30 years) enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (March 25, 1985, to August 31, 2011). Data analysis was performed June 1, 2014, through April 15, 2015. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We assessed television viewing and physical activity at repeated visits (3 assessments) over 25 years using a validated questionnaire. A 25-year pattern of high television viewing was defined as watching TV above the upper baseline quartile (>3 hours/d) for more than two-Thirds of the visits, and a 25-year pattern of low physical activity was defined as activity levels below the lower, sex-specific baseline quartile for more than two-Thirds of the of the visits.We evaluated cognitive function at year 25 using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Stroop test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. RESULTS At baseline, the mean (SD) age of the 3247 study participants was 25.1 (3.6) years, 1836 (56.5%) were female, 1771 (54.5%) were white, and 3015 (92.9%) had completed at least high school. Compared with participants with low television viewing, those with high television viewing during 25 years (353 of 3247 [10.9%]) were more likely to have poor cognitive performance (<1 SD below the race-specific mean) on the DSST and Stroop test, with findings reported as adjusted odds ratio (95%CI): DSST, 1.64 (1.21-2.23) and Stroop test, 1.56 (1.13-2.14), but not the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, adjusted for age, race, sex, educational level, smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, and hypertension. Low physical activity during 25 years in 528 of 3247 participants (16.3%) was significantly associated with poor performance on the DSST, 1.47 (1.14-1.90). Compared with participants with low television viewing and high physical activity, the odds of poor performance were almost 2 times higher for adults with both high television viewing and low physical activity in 107 of 3247 (3.3%) (DSST, 1.95 [1.19-3.22], and Stroop test, 2.20 [1.36-3.56]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE High television viewing and low physical activity in early adulthood were associated with worse midlife executive function and processing speed. This is one of the first studies to demonstrate that these risk behaviors may be critical targets for prevention of cognitive aging even before middle age.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84954116894&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84954116894&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.2468

DO - 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2015.2468

M3 - Article

C2 - 26629780

AN - SCOPUS:84954116894

VL - 73

SP - 73

EP - 79

JO - JAMA Psychiatry

JF - JAMA Psychiatry

SN - 2168-622X

IS - 1

ER -