Effect of dietary energy restriction on glucose production and substrate utilization in type 2 diabetes

Mark P. Christiansen, Peter A. Linfoot, Richard A. Neese, Marc K. Hellerstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

48 Scopus citations

Abstract

A total of 8 obese subjects with type 2 diabetes were studied while on a eucaloric diet and after reduced energy intake (25 and then 75% of requirements for 10 days each). Weight loss was 2, 3, and 3 kg after 5, 10, and 20 days, respectively; all of the weight lost was body fat. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels fell from 11.9 ± 1.4 at baseline to 8.9 ± 1.6, 7.9 ± 1.4, and 8.8 ± 1.3 mmol/l at days 5, 10, and 20, respectively (P < 0.05, baseline vs. 5, 10, and 20 days). Endogenous glucose production (EGP) was 22 ± 2, 18 ± 2, 17 ± 2, and 22 ± 2 μmol · kg-1 lean body mass (LBM) · min-1 (P < 0.05, days 5 and 10 vs. baseline). Gluconeogenesis measured by mass isotopomer distribution analysis provided 31 ± 4, 41 ± 5, 40 ± 4, and 33 ± 4%, respectively, of the EGP (NS); absolute glycogenolytic contribution to the EGP was 15 ± 2, 11 ± 2, 11 ± 2, and 15 ± 2 μmol · kg-1 LBM min-1, respectively (P < 0.001, baseline vs. days 5 and 10 and day 10 vs. day 20). The blood glucose clearance rate increased significantly at day 20 (P < 0.05). Neither lipolysis nor flux of plasma nonesterified fatty acids were altered compared with baseline. In conclusion, severe energy restriction per se independent of major changes in body composition reduces both FBG concentration and EGP in type 2 diabetes, the reduction in EGP results entirely from a reduction of glycogenolytic input into blood glucose, and the duration of reduced glycogenolysis is short-lived after relaxation of energy restriction even without weight gain, but effects on plasma glucose clearance persist and partially maintain the improvement in fasting glycemia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1691-1699
Number of pages9
JournalDiabetes
Volume49
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2000

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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    Christiansen, M. P., Linfoot, P. A., Neese, R. A., & Hellerstein, M. K. (2000). Effect of dietary energy restriction on glucose production and substrate utilization in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes, 49(10), 1691-1699.