Effect of anesthesia, positioning, time, and feeding on the proventriculus: Keel ratio of clinically healthy parrots

Sophie E. Dennison, Joanne R Paul-Murphy, Brian S. Yandell, William M. Adams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations


Healthy, adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) were imaged on three occasions to determine the effects of anesthesia, patient rotation, feeding, and short/long-term temporal factors on the proventriculus:keel ratio. Increasing rotation up to 15° from right lateral resulted in increased inability to measure the proventriculus in up to 44% of birds, meaning that the proventriculus:keel ratio could not be calculated from those radiographs. There was a significant difference between the proventriculus:keel ratio for individual parrots when quantified 3 weeks apart. Despite this difference, all ratios remained within normal limits. No significant effect was identified due to anesthesia, feeding, fasting, or repeated imaging through an 8-h period. Interobserver agreement for measurability and correlation for the proventriculus:keel ratio values was high. It is recommended that the proventriculus:keel ratio be calculated from anesthetized parrots to attain images in true lateral recumbency. Ratio fluctuations within the normal range between radiographs obtained on different dates may be observed in normal parrots.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)141-144
Number of pages4
JournalVeterinary Radiology and Ultrasound
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2010
Externally publishedYes



  • Amazona ventralis
  • Parrot
  • Proventriculus
  • Psittacines
  • Radiography
  • Radiology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this