Echocardiographic parameters of clinically normal geriatric rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta)

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10 Scopus citations


The goal of this study was to generate reference intervals for echocardiographic variables in a population of clinically normal geriatric rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). To do this, we studied 51 animals (age, 18-29 y; weight, 5.24-17.04 kg). The normal values for cardiac indices, including geometry and systolic and diastolic function, were determined by 2D, M-mode, spectral Doppler, and tissue Doppler echocardiography under ketamine hydrochloride sedation. Statistical correlations between the echocardiographic parameters and age, body weight, sex, and heart rate were investigated. All echocardiographic indices were acquired, and their reference intervals were established. Multiple weak to strong correlations emerged between variables and echocardiographic parameters, but no moderate or strong correlations between body weight or sex and these parameters were noted. Of the 51 geriatric rhesus macaques evaluated, 36 (71%) fulfilled the criteria for diastolic dysfunction. Valve regurgitation, especially tricuspid regurgitation (43%), and aortic regurgitation (51%) also were common in geriatric rhesus macaques. Although these findings merit follow-up, they are unlikely to have clinical significance given their prevalence in these apparently healthy animals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)361-368
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology


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