Dysregulated choline, methionine, and aromatic amino acid metabolism in patients with wilson disease: Exploratory metabolomic profiling and implications for hepatic and neurologic phenotypes

Tagreed A. Mazi, Gaurav V. Sarode, Anna Czlonkowska, Tomasz Litwin, Kyoungmi Kim, Noreene M. Shibata, Valentina Medici

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Wilson disease (WD) is a genetic copper overload condition characterized by hepatic and neuropsychiatric symptoms with a not well-understood pathogenesis. Dysregulated methionine cycle is reported in animal models of WD, though not verified in humans. Choline is essential for lipid and methionine metabolism. Defects in neurotransmitters as acetylcholine, and biogenic amines are reported in WD; however, less is known about their circulating precursors. We aimed to study choline, methionine, aromatic amino acids, and phospholipids in serum of WD subjects. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was employed to profile serum of WD subjects categorized as hepatic, neurologic, and pre-clinical. Hepatic transcript levels of genes related to choline and methionine metabolism were verified in the Jackson Laboratory toxic milk mouse model of WD (tx-j). Compared to healthy subjects, choline, methionine, ornithine, proline, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and histidine were significantly elevated in WD, with marked alterations in phosphatidylcholines and reductions in sphingosine-1-phosphate, sphingomyelins, and acylcarnitines. In tx-j mice, choline, methionine, and phosphatidylcholine were similarly dysregulated. Elevated choline is a hallmark dysregulation in WD interconnected with alterations in methionine and phospholipid metabolism, which are relevant to hepatic steatosis. The elevated phenylalanine, tyrosine, and histidine carry implications for neurologic manifestations and are worth further investigation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5937
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Volume20
Issue number23
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2019

Fingerprint

choline
methionine
Aromatic Amino Acids
Hepatolenticular Degeneration
phenotype
Metabolomics
metabolism
Choline
Carboxylic acids
Metabolism
Methionine
Nervous System
amino acids
Amino acids
Phenotype
Liver
phenylalanine
histidine
tyrosine
Phospholipids

Keywords

  • Choline
  • Copper
  • Histidine
  • Metabolomics
  • Neurotransmitters
  • Phenylalanine
  • Phospholipids
  • Steatosis
  • Tyrosine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

Cite this

Dysregulated choline, methionine, and aromatic amino acid metabolism in patients with wilson disease : Exploratory metabolomic profiling and implications for hepatic and neurologic phenotypes. / Mazi, Tagreed A.; Sarode, Gaurav V.; Czlonkowska, Anna; Litwin, Tomasz; Kim, Kyoungmi; Shibata, Noreene M.; Medici, Valentina.

In: International journal of molecular sciences, Vol. 20, No. 23, 5937, 01.12.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Mazi, Tagreed A.

AU - Sarode, Gaurav V.

AU - Czlonkowska, Anna

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AU - Kim, Kyoungmi

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N2 - Wilson disease (WD) is a genetic copper overload condition characterized by hepatic and neuropsychiatric symptoms with a not well-understood pathogenesis. Dysregulated methionine cycle is reported in animal models of WD, though not verified in humans. Choline is essential for lipid and methionine metabolism. Defects in neurotransmitters as acetylcholine, and biogenic amines are reported in WD; however, less is known about their circulating precursors. We aimed to study choline, methionine, aromatic amino acids, and phospholipids in serum of WD subjects. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was employed to profile serum of WD subjects categorized as hepatic, neurologic, and pre-clinical. Hepatic transcript levels of genes related to choline and methionine metabolism were verified in the Jackson Laboratory toxic milk mouse model of WD (tx-j). Compared to healthy subjects, choline, methionine, ornithine, proline, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and histidine were significantly elevated in WD, with marked alterations in phosphatidylcholines and reductions in sphingosine-1-phosphate, sphingomyelins, and acylcarnitines. In tx-j mice, choline, methionine, and phosphatidylcholine were similarly dysregulated. Elevated choline is a hallmark dysregulation in WD interconnected with alterations in methionine and phospholipid metabolism, which are relevant to hepatic steatosis. The elevated phenylalanine, tyrosine, and histidine carry implications for neurologic manifestations and are worth further investigation.

AB - Wilson disease (WD) is a genetic copper overload condition characterized by hepatic and neuropsychiatric symptoms with a not well-understood pathogenesis. Dysregulated methionine cycle is reported in animal models of WD, though not verified in humans. Choline is essential for lipid and methionine metabolism. Defects in neurotransmitters as acetylcholine, and biogenic amines are reported in WD; however, less is known about their circulating precursors. We aimed to study choline, methionine, aromatic amino acids, and phospholipids in serum of WD subjects. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was employed to profile serum of WD subjects categorized as hepatic, neurologic, and pre-clinical. Hepatic transcript levels of genes related to choline and methionine metabolism were verified in the Jackson Laboratory toxic milk mouse model of WD (tx-j). Compared to healthy subjects, choline, methionine, ornithine, proline, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and histidine were significantly elevated in WD, with marked alterations in phosphatidylcholines and reductions in sphingosine-1-phosphate, sphingomyelins, and acylcarnitines. In tx-j mice, choline, methionine, and phosphatidylcholine were similarly dysregulated. Elevated choline is a hallmark dysregulation in WD interconnected with alterations in methionine and phospholipid metabolism, which are relevant to hepatic steatosis. The elevated phenylalanine, tyrosine, and histidine carry implications for neurologic manifestations and are worth further investigation.

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