Dynamics of Vibrio with Virulence Genes Detected in Pacific Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) Off California: Implications for Marine Mammal Health

Stephanie N. Hughes, Denise J. Greig, Woutrina A Smith, Barbara A Byrne, Frances M D Gulland, James T. Harvey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Given their coastal site fidelity and opportunistic foraging behavior, harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) may serve as sentinels for coastal ecosystem health. Seals using urbanized coastal habitat can acquire enteric bacteria, including Vibrio that may affect their health. To understand Vibrio dynamics in seals, demographic and environmental factors were tested for predicting potentially virulent Vibrio in free-ranging and stranded Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) off California. Vibrio prevalence did not vary with season and was greater in free-ranging seals (29 %, n = 319) compared with stranded seals (17 %, n = 189). Of the factors tested, location, turbidity, and/or salinity best predicted Vibrio prevalence in free-ranging seals. The relationship of environmental factors with Vibrio prevalence differed by location and may be related to oceanographic or terrestrial contributions to water quality. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Vibrio cholerae were observed in seals, with V. cholerae found almost exclusively in stranded pups and yearlings. Additionally, virulence genes (trh and tdh) were detected in V. parahaemolyticus isolates. Vibrio cholerae isolates lacked targeted virulence genes, but were hemolytic. Three out of four stranded pups with V. parahaemolyticus (trh+ and/or tdh+) died in rehabilitation, but the role of Vibrio in causing mortality is unclear, and Vibrio expression of virulence genes should be investigated. Considering that humans share the environment and food resources with seals, potentially virulent Vibrio observed in seals also may be of concern to human health.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)982-994
Number of pages13
JournalMicrobial Ecology
Volume65
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2013

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Phoca vitulina
cholera
marine mammal
marine mammals
Vibrio
virulence
seals
harbor
gene
environmental factor
Vibrio cholerae
site fidelity
Vibrio parahaemolyticus
genes
ecosystem health
foraging behavior
turbidity
water quality
salinity
mortality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Ecology
  • Soil Science

Cite this

Dynamics of Vibrio with Virulence Genes Detected in Pacific Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) Off California : Implications for Marine Mammal Health. / Hughes, Stephanie N.; Greig, Denise J.; Smith, Woutrina A; Byrne, Barbara A; Gulland, Frances M D; Harvey, James T.

In: Microbial Ecology, Vol. 65, No. 4, 05.2013, p. 982-994.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Given their coastal site fidelity and opportunistic foraging behavior, harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) may serve as sentinels for coastal ecosystem health. Seals using urbanized coastal habitat can acquire enteric bacteria, including Vibrio that may affect their health. To understand Vibrio dynamics in seals, demographic and environmental factors were tested for predicting potentially virulent Vibrio in free-ranging and stranded Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) off California. Vibrio prevalence did not vary with season and was greater in free-ranging seals (29 {\%}, n = 319) compared with stranded seals (17 {\%}, n = 189). Of the factors tested, location, turbidity, and/or salinity best predicted Vibrio prevalence in free-ranging seals. The relationship of environmental factors with Vibrio prevalence differed by location and may be related to oceanographic or terrestrial contributions to water quality. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Vibrio cholerae were observed in seals, with V. cholerae found almost exclusively in stranded pups and yearlings. Additionally, virulence genes (trh and tdh) were detected in V. parahaemolyticus isolates. Vibrio cholerae isolates lacked targeted virulence genes, but were hemolytic. Three out of four stranded pups with V. parahaemolyticus (trh+ and/or tdh+) died in rehabilitation, but the role of Vibrio in causing mortality is unclear, and Vibrio expression of virulence genes should be investigated. Considering that humans share the environment and food resources with seals, potentially virulent Vibrio observed in seals also may be of concern to human health.",
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