Neutrophil recruitment during acute inflammation is triggered by G-protein-linked chemotactic receptors that in turn activate β2 integrin (CD18), deemed a critical step in facilitating cell capture and arrest under the shear force of blood flow. A conformational switch in the I domain allosteric site (IDAS) and in CD18 regulates LFA-1 affinity for endothelial ligands including intercel. lular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). We examined the dynamics of CD18 activation in terms of the efficiency of neutrophil capture of ICAM-1, and we correlated this with the membrane topography of 327C, an antibody that recognizes the active conformation of CD18 I-like domain. Adhesion increased in direct proportion to chemotactic stimulus rising 7-fold over a log range of interleukin-8 (IL-8). A threshold dose of ∼75 pM IL-8, corresponding to ligation of only ∼10-100 receptors, was sufficient to activate ∼20,000 CD18 and a rapid boost in the capture efficiency on ICAM-1. This was accompanied by a rapid redistribution of active LFA-1, but not Mac-1, into membrane patches, a necessary component for optimum adhesion efficiency. Shear-resistant arrest on a monolayer of ICAM-1 was reversed within minutes of chemotactic stimulation correlating with a shift from high to low affinity CD18 and dispersal of patches of active CD18. Mobility of active CD18 into high avidity patches was dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity and not F-actin polymerization. The data reveal that the number of chemotactic receptors bound and the topography and lifetime of high affinity LFA-1 tightly regulate the efficiency of neutrophil capture on ICAM-1.
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