Duration of protection of calves against rhinovirus challenge exposure by infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus-induced interferon in nasal secretions.

Nigel J Maclachlan, B. D. Rosenquist

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

Six calves inoculated intranasally with a vaccinal strain of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus and 6 control calves were given a placebo. All calves were subsequently challenge exposed (by aerosol) with rhinovirus--3 of the calves from each group at 2 days after they were inoculated with IBR virus or with placebo and the remaining calves at 6 days. Nasal excretion of viruses, interferon (IFN) concentrations in nasal secretions (NS), and neutralizing antibody in sera and NS were determined. All calves given the vaccinal IBR virus subsequently had IFN in their NS. Interferon was detected as early as 1 day, reached maximal titers at 2 to 4 days, and persisted in individual calves for 5 to 10 days after inoculation. Rhinovirus shedding was not detected from IBR virus-inoculated calves whose NS contained both rhinovirus antibody and IFN at the time of challenge exposure; such calves were protected at either 2 or 6 days after IBR virus inoculation. The outcome of rhinovirus challenge exposure of calves whose NS contained IFN, but not rhinovirus antibody, varied with the day of challenge exposure. Rhinovirus excretion was detected from 2 of these calves challenge exposed 2 days after IBR virus inoculation, but was not detected from a calf challenge exposed 6 days after inoculation. However, while IFN was present in NS from the former 2 calves, rhinovirus shedding was markedly reduced as compared with that from control calves without IFN or NS antibody at the time of challenge exposure. Consistent relationship was not observed between the rhinovirus neutralizing antibody titer of calves' sera and NS. The antibody titer of NS more closely correlated with protective immunity to rhinovirus infection than did the serum antibody titer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)289-293
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Veterinary Research
Volume43
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1982
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

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