Durability of Satisfactory Functional Outcomes Following Surgical Adult Spinal Deformity Correction: A 3-Year Survivorship Analysis

Peter G. Passias, Cole A. Bortz, Virginie Lafage, Renaud Lafage, Justin S. Smith, Breton Line, Robert Eastlack, Munish C Gupta, Richard A. Hostin, Samantha R. Horn, Frank A. Segreto, Max Egers, Daniel M. Sciubba, Jeffrey L. Gum, Khaled M. Kebaish, Eric O. Klineberg, Douglas C. Burton, Frank J. Schwab, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Christopher P. AmesShay Bess

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Despite reports showing positive long-term functional outcomes following adult spinal deformity (ASD)-corrective surgery, it is unclear which factors affect the durability of these outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To assess durability of functional gains following ASD-corrective surgery; determine predictors for postoperative loss of functionality. METHODS: Surgical ASD patients > 18 yr with 3-yr Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) follow-up, and 1-yr postoperative (1Y) ODI scores reaching substantial clinical benefit (SCB) threshold (SCB < 31.3 points). Patients were grouped: those sustaining ODI at SCB threshold beyond 1Y (sustained functionality) and those not (functional decline). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis determined postoperative durability of functionality. Multivariate Cox regression assessed the relationship between patient/surgical factors and functional decline, accounting for age, sex, and levels fused. RESULTS: All 166 included patients showed baseline to 1Y functional improvement (mean ODI: 35.3 ± 16.5-13.6 ± 9.2, P < .001). Durability of satisfactory functional outcomes following the 1Y postoperative interval was 88.6% at 2-yr postoperative, and 71.1% at 3-yr postoperative (3Y). Those sustaining functionality after 1Y had lower baseline C2-S1 sagittal vertical axis (SVA) and T1 slope (both P < .05), and lower 1Y thoracic kyphosis (P = .035). From 1Y to 3Y, patients who sustained functionality showed smaller changes in alignment: pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis, SVA, T1 slope minus cervical lordosis, and C2-C7 SVA (all P < .05). Those sustaining functionality beyond 1Y were also younger, less frail at 1Y, and had lower rates of baseline osteoporosis, hypertension, and lung disease (all P < .05). Lung disease (Hazard Ratio:4.8 [1.4-16.4]), 1Y frailty (HR:1.4 [1.1-1.9]), and posterior approach (HR:2.6 [1.2-5.8]) were associated with more rapid decline. CONCLUSION: Seventy-one percent of ASD patients maintained satisfactory functional outcomes by 3Y. Of those who failed to sustain functionality, the largest functional decline occurred 3-yr postoperatively. Frailty, preoperative comorbidities, and surgical approach affected durability of functional gains following surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)118-125
Number of pages8
JournalOperative neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Volume18
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2020

Keywords

  • Adult spinal deformity
  • Disability
  • Functionality
  • Outcomes
  • Surgical correction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Durability of Satisfactory Functional Outcomes Following Surgical Adult Spinal Deformity Correction: A 3-Year Survivorship Analysis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this

    Passias, P. G., Bortz, C. A., Lafage, V., Lafage, R., Smith, J. S., Line, B., Eastlack, R., Gupta, M. C., Hostin, R. A., Horn, S. R., Segreto, F. A., Egers, M., Sciubba, D. M., Gum, J. L., Kebaish, K. M., Klineberg, E. O., Burton, D. C., Schwab, F. J., Shaffrey, C. I., ... Bess, S. (2020). Durability of Satisfactory Functional Outcomes Following Surgical Adult Spinal Deformity Correction: A 3-Year Survivorship Analysis. Operative neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.), 18(2), 118-125. https://doi.org/10.1093/ons/opz093