Dual APD array readout of LSO crystals: Optimization of crystal surface treatment

Y. Shao, K. Meadors, R. W. Silverman, R. Farrell, L. Cirignano, R. Grazioso, K. S. Shah, Simon R Cherry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

67 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We are developing a compact positron emission tomography (PET) detector module with a depth of interaction capability (DOI) based on a lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillator array coupled at both ends by avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays. This leads to a detector with high sensitivity that can provide high and uniform image resolution. We report studies on improving the DOI resolution by optimizing the crystal surface treatment. Six 2 × 2 × 20 mm LSO crystals were treated with different surface finishes along their length: raw saw-cut, polished optical finish, and chemically etched by hot anhydrous phosphoric acid (H3PO4) with etching times varying from 1 to 5 min. The ratio of the signals from the two APD arrays was used to measure DOI, and the sum of the signals to measure the total light output. Crystals finished by chemical etching for 2-3 min gave the best overall detector performance, with DOI resolutions ranging from 3.1 to 3.9 mm for events above a 150-keV threshold and uniform light output for different DOI positions. The energy resolution ranged between 14% and 18%. This detector design appears promising for PET applications requiring very high resolution and high sensitivity, for example, in small animal imaging and human breast imaging.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)649-654
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science
Volume49 I
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2002

Fingerprint

Avalanche photodiodes
surface treatment
crystal surfaces
avalanches
photodiodes
Surface treatment
readout
Detectors
Crystals
Positron emission tomography
optimization
crystals
detectors
Etching
interactions
Lutetium
positrons
Imaging techniques
tomography
etching

Keywords

  • Avalanche photodiodes
  • Depth of interaction
  • Positron emission tomography (PET)
  • Scintillation detector

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering

Cite this

Dual APD array readout of LSO crystals : Optimization of crystal surface treatment. / Shao, Y.; Meadors, K.; Silverman, R. W.; Farrell, R.; Cirignano, L.; Grazioso, R.; Shah, K. S.; Cherry, Simon R.

In: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol. 49 I, No. 3, 06.2002, p. 649-654.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shao, Y, Meadors, K, Silverman, RW, Farrell, R, Cirignano, L, Grazioso, R, Shah, KS & Cherry, SR 2002, 'Dual APD array readout of LSO crystals: Optimization of crystal surface treatment', IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 49 I, no. 3, pp. 649-654. https://doi.org/10.1109/TNS.2002.1039544
Shao Y, Meadors K, Silverman RW, Farrell R, Cirignano L, Grazioso R et al. Dual APD array readout of LSO crystals: Optimization of crystal surface treatment. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 2002 Jun;49 I(3):649-654. https://doi.org/10.1109/TNS.2002.1039544
Shao, Y. ; Meadors, K. ; Silverman, R. W. ; Farrell, R. ; Cirignano, L. ; Grazioso, R. ; Shah, K. S. ; Cherry, Simon R. / Dual APD array readout of LSO crystals : Optimization of crystal surface treatment. In: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science. 2002 ; Vol. 49 I, No. 3. pp. 649-654.
@article{877fa4d9edc843f09cba2df2cd4742f2,
title = "Dual APD array readout of LSO crystals: Optimization of crystal surface treatment",
abstract = "We are developing a compact positron emission tomography (PET) detector module with a depth of interaction capability (DOI) based on a lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillator array coupled at both ends by avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays. This leads to a detector with high sensitivity that can provide high and uniform image resolution. We report studies on improving the DOI resolution by optimizing the crystal surface treatment. Six 2 × 2 × 20 mm LSO crystals were treated with different surface finishes along their length: raw saw-cut, polished optical finish, and chemically etched by hot anhydrous phosphoric acid (H3PO4) with etching times varying from 1 to 5 min. The ratio of the signals from the two APD arrays was used to measure DOI, and the sum of the signals to measure the total light output. Crystals finished by chemical etching for 2-3 min gave the best overall detector performance, with DOI resolutions ranging from 3.1 to 3.9 mm for events above a 150-keV threshold and uniform light output for different DOI positions. The energy resolution ranged between 14{\%} and 18{\%}. This detector design appears promising for PET applications requiring very high resolution and high sensitivity, for example, in small animal imaging and human breast imaging.",
keywords = "Avalanche photodiodes, Depth of interaction, Positron emission tomography (PET), Scintillation detector",
author = "Y. Shao and K. Meadors and Silverman, {R. W.} and R. Farrell and L. Cirignano and R. Grazioso and Shah, {K. S.} and Cherry, {Simon R}",
year = "2002",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1109/TNS.2002.1039544",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "49 I",
pages = "649--654",
journal = "IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science",
issn = "0018-9499",
publisher = "Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Dual APD array readout of LSO crystals

T2 - Optimization of crystal surface treatment

AU - Shao, Y.

AU - Meadors, K.

AU - Silverman, R. W.

AU - Farrell, R.

AU - Cirignano, L.

AU - Grazioso, R.

AU - Shah, K. S.

AU - Cherry, Simon R

PY - 2002/6

Y1 - 2002/6

N2 - We are developing a compact positron emission tomography (PET) detector module with a depth of interaction capability (DOI) based on a lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillator array coupled at both ends by avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays. This leads to a detector with high sensitivity that can provide high and uniform image resolution. We report studies on improving the DOI resolution by optimizing the crystal surface treatment. Six 2 × 2 × 20 mm LSO crystals were treated with different surface finishes along their length: raw saw-cut, polished optical finish, and chemically etched by hot anhydrous phosphoric acid (H3PO4) with etching times varying from 1 to 5 min. The ratio of the signals from the two APD arrays was used to measure DOI, and the sum of the signals to measure the total light output. Crystals finished by chemical etching for 2-3 min gave the best overall detector performance, with DOI resolutions ranging from 3.1 to 3.9 mm for events above a 150-keV threshold and uniform light output for different DOI positions. The energy resolution ranged between 14% and 18%. This detector design appears promising for PET applications requiring very high resolution and high sensitivity, for example, in small animal imaging and human breast imaging.

AB - We are developing a compact positron emission tomography (PET) detector module with a depth of interaction capability (DOI) based on a lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillator array coupled at both ends by avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays. This leads to a detector with high sensitivity that can provide high and uniform image resolution. We report studies on improving the DOI resolution by optimizing the crystal surface treatment. Six 2 × 2 × 20 mm LSO crystals were treated with different surface finishes along their length: raw saw-cut, polished optical finish, and chemically etched by hot anhydrous phosphoric acid (H3PO4) with etching times varying from 1 to 5 min. The ratio of the signals from the two APD arrays was used to measure DOI, and the sum of the signals to measure the total light output. Crystals finished by chemical etching for 2-3 min gave the best overall detector performance, with DOI resolutions ranging from 3.1 to 3.9 mm for events above a 150-keV threshold and uniform light output for different DOI positions. The energy resolution ranged between 14% and 18%. This detector design appears promising for PET applications requiring very high resolution and high sensitivity, for example, in small animal imaging and human breast imaging.

KW - Avalanche photodiodes

KW - Depth of interaction

KW - Positron emission tomography (PET)

KW - Scintillation detector

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0036624298&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0036624298&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1109/TNS.2002.1039544

DO - 10.1109/TNS.2002.1039544

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:0036624298

VL - 49 I

SP - 649

EP - 654

JO - IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science

JF - IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science

SN - 0018-9499

IS - 3

ER -