Drug distribution and stability in extemporaneous preparations of meloxicam and carprofen after dilution and suspension at two storage temperatures

Michelle Hawkins, Margo J. Karriker, Valerie Wiebe, Ian T. Taylor, Philip H Kass

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5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective - To determine dispersion uniformity and stability of meloxicam and carprofen in extemporaneous preparations stored for 28 days. Design - Prospective study. Sample Population - Meloxicam and carprofen (commercial formulations) were compounded (day 0) with deionized water (DW), 1% methylcellulose gel (MCG), MCG and simple syrup (SS; 1:1 mixture), or a suspending and flavoring vehicle combination (SFVC; 1:1 mixture) to nominal drug concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/mL and 1.25, 2.5, or 5.0 mg/mL, respectively. Procedures - Preparations were stored at approximately 4°C (39.2°F) or 22°C (71.6°F). For each preparation, drug concentrations were determined and drug stability was evaluated at intervals during storage; on days 0 and 28, pH values were measured and bacterial cultures were initiated. Results - In meloxicam-DW, meloxicam-MCG (0.25 mg/mL), and meloxicam-MCG (0.5 mg/mL) preparations, drug distribution was uniform (coefficient of variation < 10%); > 90% of the original drug concentration was maintained for 28 days. Despite uniform drug distribution of the carprofen-SFVC preparations, most retained ≥ 90% of the original drug concentration for only 21 days. Use of the MCG-SS combination resulted in foamy preparations of unacceptable variability. After 28 days, pH decreased slightly in meloxicam-DW and meloxicam-MCG preparations (0.17 ± 0.04 and 0.21 ± 0.04, respectively). Carprofen-SFVC (2.5 mg/mL) and carprofen-MCG-SS (5.0 mg/mL) preparations stored at 22°C for 28 days yielded bacterial growth. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - DW, MCG, and the SFVC can be used successfully for extemporaneous preparation of meloxicam and carprofen for administration to small exotic animals. Refrigeration is recommended for preparations of meloxicam-DW and carprofen-SFVC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)968-974
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Volume229
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 15 2006

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meloxicam
Drug Stability
methylcellulose
Methylcellulose
storage temperature
Suspensions
Gels
gels
drugs
Temperature
Water
Pharmaceutical Preparations
water
carprofen
Refrigeration
Drug Compounding
syrups
flavorings

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

@article{1a0381df93c541a6b5e99fde6696880b,
title = "Drug distribution and stability in extemporaneous preparations of meloxicam and carprofen after dilution and suspension at two storage temperatures",
abstract = "Objective - To determine dispersion uniformity and stability of meloxicam and carprofen in extemporaneous preparations stored for 28 days. Design - Prospective study. Sample Population - Meloxicam and carprofen (commercial formulations) were compounded (day 0) with deionized water (DW), 1{\%} methylcellulose gel (MCG), MCG and simple syrup (SS; 1:1 mixture), or a suspending and flavoring vehicle combination (SFVC; 1:1 mixture) to nominal drug concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/mL and 1.25, 2.5, or 5.0 mg/mL, respectively. Procedures - Preparations were stored at approximately 4°C (39.2°F) or 22°C (71.6°F). For each preparation, drug concentrations were determined and drug stability was evaluated at intervals during storage; on days 0 and 28, pH values were measured and bacterial cultures were initiated. Results - In meloxicam-DW, meloxicam-MCG (0.25 mg/mL), and meloxicam-MCG (0.5 mg/mL) preparations, drug distribution was uniform (coefficient of variation < 10{\%}); > 90{\%} of the original drug concentration was maintained for 28 days. Despite uniform drug distribution of the carprofen-SFVC preparations, most retained ≥ 90{\%} of the original drug concentration for only 21 days. Use of the MCG-SS combination resulted in foamy preparations of unacceptable variability. After 28 days, pH decreased slightly in meloxicam-DW and meloxicam-MCG preparations (0.17 ± 0.04 and 0.21 ± 0.04, respectively). Carprofen-SFVC (2.5 mg/mL) and carprofen-MCG-SS (5.0 mg/mL) preparations stored at 22°C for 28 days yielded bacterial growth. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - DW, MCG, and the SFVC can be used successfully for extemporaneous preparation of meloxicam and carprofen for administration to small exotic animals. Refrigeration is recommended for preparations of meloxicam-DW and carprofen-SFVC.",
author = "Michelle Hawkins and Karriker, {Margo J.} and Valerie Wiebe and Taylor, {Ian T.} and Kass, {Philip H}",
year = "2006",
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language = "English (US)",
volume = "229",
pages = "968--974",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Drug distribution and stability in extemporaneous preparations of meloxicam and carprofen after dilution and suspension at two storage temperatures

AU - Hawkins, Michelle

AU - Karriker, Margo J.

AU - Wiebe, Valerie

AU - Taylor, Ian T.

AU - Kass, Philip H

PY - 2006/9/15

Y1 - 2006/9/15

N2 - Objective - To determine dispersion uniformity and stability of meloxicam and carprofen in extemporaneous preparations stored for 28 days. Design - Prospective study. Sample Population - Meloxicam and carprofen (commercial formulations) were compounded (day 0) with deionized water (DW), 1% methylcellulose gel (MCG), MCG and simple syrup (SS; 1:1 mixture), or a suspending and flavoring vehicle combination (SFVC; 1:1 mixture) to nominal drug concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/mL and 1.25, 2.5, or 5.0 mg/mL, respectively. Procedures - Preparations were stored at approximately 4°C (39.2°F) or 22°C (71.6°F). For each preparation, drug concentrations were determined and drug stability was evaluated at intervals during storage; on days 0 and 28, pH values were measured and bacterial cultures were initiated. Results - In meloxicam-DW, meloxicam-MCG (0.25 mg/mL), and meloxicam-MCG (0.5 mg/mL) preparations, drug distribution was uniform (coefficient of variation < 10%); > 90% of the original drug concentration was maintained for 28 days. Despite uniform drug distribution of the carprofen-SFVC preparations, most retained ≥ 90% of the original drug concentration for only 21 days. Use of the MCG-SS combination resulted in foamy preparations of unacceptable variability. After 28 days, pH decreased slightly in meloxicam-DW and meloxicam-MCG preparations (0.17 ± 0.04 and 0.21 ± 0.04, respectively). Carprofen-SFVC (2.5 mg/mL) and carprofen-MCG-SS (5.0 mg/mL) preparations stored at 22°C for 28 days yielded bacterial growth. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - DW, MCG, and the SFVC can be used successfully for extemporaneous preparation of meloxicam and carprofen for administration to small exotic animals. Refrigeration is recommended for preparations of meloxicam-DW and carprofen-SFVC.

AB - Objective - To determine dispersion uniformity and stability of meloxicam and carprofen in extemporaneous preparations stored for 28 days. Design - Prospective study. Sample Population - Meloxicam and carprofen (commercial formulations) were compounded (day 0) with deionized water (DW), 1% methylcellulose gel (MCG), MCG and simple syrup (SS; 1:1 mixture), or a suspending and flavoring vehicle combination (SFVC; 1:1 mixture) to nominal drug concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/mL and 1.25, 2.5, or 5.0 mg/mL, respectively. Procedures - Preparations were stored at approximately 4°C (39.2°F) or 22°C (71.6°F). For each preparation, drug concentrations were determined and drug stability was evaluated at intervals during storage; on days 0 and 28, pH values were measured and bacterial cultures were initiated. Results - In meloxicam-DW, meloxicam-MCG (0.25 mg/mL), and meloxicam-MCG (0.5 mg/mL) preparations, drug distribution was uniform (coefficient of variation < 10%); > 90% of the original drug concentration was maintained for 28 days. Despite uniform drug distribution of the carprofen-SFVC preparations, most retained ≥ 90% of the original drug concentration for only 21 days. Use of the MCG-SS combination resulted in foamy preparations of unacceptable variability. After 28 days, pH decreased slightly in meloxicam-DW and meloxicam-MCG preparations (0.17 ± 0.04 and 0.21 ± 0.04, respectively). Carprofen-SFVC (2.5 mg/mL) and carprofen-MCG-SS (5.0 mg/mL) preparations stored at 22°C for 28 days yielded bacterial growth. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - DW, MCG, and the SFVC can be used successfully for extemporaneous preparation of meloxicam and carprofen for administration to small exotic animals. Refrigeration is recommended for preparations of meloxicam-DW and carprofen-SFVC.

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