Dried solidified blood calculi in the urinary tract of cats

Joellen L Westropp, Annette L. Ruby, Nathan L. Bailiff, Andrew E. Kyles, Gerald V. Ling

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57 Scopus citations


We have noted an increased number of calculi submitted to the Gerald V. Ling Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory, University of California, Davis, that do not contain crystalline material but appear to be composed of dried solidified blood (DSB). Canine and feline laboratory records from 1986-2003 were reviewed for samples composed of >99% DSB. No calculi from dogs were found, but specimens from 49 cats were composed of >99% DSB, of which almost half (n = 22) had been submitted after 2001. The DSB calculi had been removed surgically or by postmortem examination from all areas of the upper and lower urinary tract. All samples were well formed and could be divided in half with Rongeur forceps. Detailed case information was available for 12 cats. Urinalyses were available for 9 of the 12 cats, and the mean specific gravity was 1.017 (range, 1.009-1.032). Red blood cells were reported in the sediment of all cats, with most containing >100 RBC/hpf. Ureteral obstructions but no radio-opaque calculi were visible by radiography, including radiographic contrast studies. Reports of ultrasound examinations were available for 10 cats, and discrete calculi were not recorded. In addition to polarized light microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and electron probe microanalysis were performed on a subset (n = 6, DSB calculi; n = 3, control calculi) of samples. Significantly more carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur (P = .012, P = .02, and P = .012, respectively) were present in the elemental analysis of the DSB calculi than in the control calculi, suggesting that the DSB calculi are primarily formed from organic material. At this time, we are uncertain why these DSB calculi become solidified, and we recommend that samples be submitted both in formalin and preservative free to further investigate their etiology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)828-834
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2006


  • Bladder
  • Cat
  • Lower urinary tract disease
  • Ureters

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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