Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Study of Intravenous Levetiracetam for the Treatment of Status Epilepticus and Acute Repetitive Seizures in Dogs

Brian Hardy, E. E. Patterson, J. M. Cloyd, R. M. Hardy, I. E. Leppik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

41 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Status epilepticus (SE) and acute repetitive seizures (ARS) are common canine neurologic emergencies. No evidence-based studies are available to guide treatment in veterinary patients. Parenteral levetiracetam (LEV) has many favorable properties for the emergency treatment of seizures, but its safety and efficacy in dogs for SE and ARS are unknown. Hypothesis: Intravenous LEV is superior to placebo in controlling seizures in dogs with SE or ARS after treatment with IV diazepam. Animals: Nineteen client-owned dogs admitted for SE or ARS. Methods: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked study. Dogs with SE or ARS were randomized to receive IV LEV (30 or 60 mg/kg using an adaptive dose-escalation approach) or placebo, in addition to standard of care treatment. They were monitored for at least 24 hours after admission for additional seizures. Results: The responder rate (defined as dogs with no additional seizures after administration of the study medication) after LEV was 56% compared with 10% for placebo (P = .06). Dogs in the placebo group required significantly more boluses of diazepam compared with the LEV group (P < .03). Seizure etiologies identified were idiopathic epilepsy (n = 10), inflammatory central nervous system disease (n = 4), intracranial neoplasia (n = 2), hepatic encephalopathy (n = 1), and 2 dogs had no cause determined. No serious adverse effects were attributable to LEV administration. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: LEV was safe and potentially effective for the treatment of SE and ARS in these client-owned dogs. Larger, controlled clinical trials are needed to confirm this preliminary observation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)334-340
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Volume26
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2012
Externally publishedYes

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etiracetam
Status Epilepticus
seizures
placebos
Seizures
Placebos
Dogs
dogs
Therapeutics
diazepam
Diazepam

Keywords

  • Canine
  • Cluster seizures
  • Epilepsy
  • Pharmacokinetics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Study of Intravenous Levetiracetam for the Treatment of Status Epilepticus and Acute Repetitive Seizures in Dogs. / Hardy, Brian; Patterson, E. E.; Cloyd, J. M.; Hardy, R. M.; Leppik, I. E.

In: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 2, 01.03.2012, p. 334-340.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: Status epilepticus (SE) and acute repetitive seizures (ARS) are common canine neurologic emergencies. No evidence-based studies are available to guide treatment in veterinary patients. Parenteral levetiracetam (LEV) has many favorable properties for the emergency treatment of seizures, but its safety and efficacy in dogs for SE and ARS are unknown. Hypothesis: Intravenous LEV is superior to placebo in controlling seizures in dogs with SE or ARS after treatment with IV diazepam. Animals: Nineteen client-owned dogs admitted for SE or ARS. Methods: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked study. Dogs with SE or ARS were randomized to receive IV LEV (30 or 60 mg/kg using an adaptive dose-escalation approach) or placebo, in addition to standard of care treatment. They were monitored for at least 24 hours after admission for additional seizures. Results: The responder rate (defined as dogs with no additional seizures after administration of the study medication) after LEV was 56{\%} compared with 10{\%} for placebo (P = .06). Dogs in the placebo group required significantly more boluses of diazepam compared with the LEV group (P < .03). Seizure etiologies identified were idiopathic epilepsy (n = 10), inflammatory central nervous system disease (n = 4), intracranial neoplasia (n = 2), hepatic encephalopathy (n = 1), and 2 dogs had no cause determined. No serious adverse effects were attributable to LEV administration. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: LEV was safe and potentially effective for the treatment of SE and ARS in these client-owned dogs. Larger, controlled clinical trials are needed to confirm this preliminary observation.",
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