Dose and Timing of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Maternal Nutritional Supplements: Developmental Effects on 6-Month-Old Infants

Claire D. Coles, Julie A. Kable, Carl L Keen, Kenneth Lyons Jones, Wladimir Wertelecki, Irina V. Granovska, Alla O. Pashtepa, Christina D. Chambers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Scopus citations


Objectives: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are more common in disadvantaged populations. Environmental factors, like suboptimal nutrition, may potentiate the developmental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. To evaluate the impact of micronutrients, including choline, on reduction of effects of exposure, we examined timing and dose of alcohol and effects of nutritional supplementation at two OMNI-Net sites in Western Ukraine that included high and low risk individuals. Methods: Alcohol-using and nondrinking women were randomized to one of three multivitamin/mineral supplement groups: none, multivitamins/minerals (MVM), and multivitamin/minerals plus choline. Children (N = 367) were tested at 6 months with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (2nd ED) yielding standard scores for Mental Development Index (MDI), Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Behavior. Results: Generalized linear modeling was used: (1) for factorial analysis of effects of alcohol group, multivitamin/minerals, and choline supplementation; and (2) to examine the relationship between amount and timing of alcohol (ounces of absolute alcohol/day [ozAA/day] peri-conception and on average in the second trimester) and MVM supplementation on developmental outcomes while controlling sex, social class, and smoking. MDI was significantly impacted by peri-conceptual alcohol dose ($$\upchi_{(1)}^{2} = 8.54$$χ(1)2=8.54, p 

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2605-2614
Number of pages10
JournalMaternal and Child Health Journal
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2015


  • Choline
  • Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
  • Infant development
  • Multivitamin supplement
  • Prenatal alcohol exposure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Epidemiology
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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