Does human proximity affect antibody prevalence in marine-foraging river otters (Lontra canadensis)?

Joseph K. Gaydos, Patricia A Conrad, Kirsten Vk Gilardi, Gail M. Blundell, Merav Ben-David

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The investigation of diseases of free-ranging river otters (Lontra canadensis) is a primary conservation priority for this species; however, very little is known about diseases of river otters that forage in marine environments. To identify and better understand pathogens that could be important to marine-foraging river otters, other wildlife species, domestic animals, and humans and to determine if proximity to human population could be a factor in disease exposure, serum samples from 55 free-ranging marine-foraging river otters were tested for antibodies to selected pathogens. Thirty-five animals were captured in Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA), an area of low human density, and 20 were captured in the San Juan Islands, Washington State (USA), an area characterized by higher human density. Of 40 river otters tested by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test, 17.5% were seropositive (titer ≥320) for Toxoplasma gondii. All positive animals came from Washington. Of 35 river otters tested for antibodies to Leptospira interrogans using the microscopic agglutination test, 10 of 20 (50%) from Washington were seropositive (titer ≥200). None of the 15 tested animals from Alaska were positive. Antibodies to Neospora caninum (n=40), Sarcocystis neurona (n=40), Brucella abortus (n=55), avian influenza (n=40), canine distemper virus (n=55), phocine distemper virus (n=55), dolphin morbillivirus (n=55), porpoise morbillivirus (n=55), and Aleutian disease parvovirus (n=46) were not detected. Identifying exposure to T. gondii and L. interrogans in otters from Washington State but not in otters from Alaska suggests that living proximal to higher human density and its associated agricultural activities, domestic animals, and rodent populations could enhance river otter exposure to these pathogens.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)116-123
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Wildlife Diseases
Volume43
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2007

Fingerprint

Otters
Lontra canadensis
Rivers
seroprevalence
antibody
foraging
Antibodies
river
animal
Morbillivirus
pathogen
Leptospira interrogans
antibodies
Toxoplasma gondii
domestic animals
virus
Domestic Animals
Toxoplasma
pathogens
domestic species

Keywords

  • Disease
  • Human population
  • Leptospirosa
  • Lontra canadensis
  • Marine
  • River otter
  • Toxoplasma gondii

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Does human proximity affect antibody prevalence in marine-foraging river otters (Lontra canadensis)? / Gaydos, Joseph K.; Conrad, Patricia A; Gilardi, Kirsten Vk; Blundell, Gail M.; Ben-David, Merav.

In: Journal of Wildlife Diseases, Vol. 43, No. 1, 01.2007, p. 116-123.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "The investigation of diseases of free-ranging river otters (Lontra canadensis) is a primary conservation priority for this species; however, very little is known about diseases of river otters that forage in marine environments. To identify and better understand pathogens that could be important to marine-foraging river otters, other wildlife species, domestic animals, and humans and to determine if proximity to human population could be a factor in disease exposure, serum samples from 55 free-ranging marine-foraging river otters were tested for antibodies to selected pathogens. Thirty-five animals were captured in Prince William Sound, Alaska (USA), an area of low human density, and 20 were captured in the San Juan Islands, Washington State (USA), an area characterized by higher human density. Of 40 river otters tested by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test, 17.5{\%} were seropositive (titer ≥320) for Toxoplasma gondii. All positive animals came from Washington. Of 35 river otters tested for antibodies to Leptospira interrogans using the microscopic agglutination test, 10 of 20 (50{\%}) from Washington were seropositive (titer ≥200). None of the 15 tested animals from Alaska were positive. Antibodies to Neospora caninum (n=40), Sarcocystis neurona (n=40), Brucella abortus (n=55), avian influenza (n=40), canine distemper virus (n=55), phocine distemper virus (n=55), dolphin morbillivirus (n=55), porpoise morbillivirus (n=55), and Aleutian disease parvovirus (n=46) were not detected. Identifying exposure to T. gondii and L. interrogans in otters from Washington State but not in otters from Alaska suggests that living proximal to higher human density and its associated agricultural activities, domestic animals, and rodent populations could enhance river otter exposure to these pathogens.",
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