Does hormone therapy reduce disease recurrence in prostate cancer patients receiving dose-escalated radiation therapy? An analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 94-06

Richard K Valicenti, Kwounghwa Bae, Jeff Michalski, Howard Sandler, William Shipley, Alex Lin, James Cox

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

44 Scopus citations


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on freedom from biochemical failure (bNED) or disease-free survival (DFS) by adding hormone therapy (HT) to dose-escalated radiation therapy (HDRT). Methods and Materials: We used 883 analyzable prostate cancer patients who enrolled on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 94-06, a Phase I/II dose escalation trial, and whose mean planning target volume dose exceeded 73.8 Gy (mean, 78.5 Gy; maximum, 84.3 Gy). We defined biochemical failure according to the Phoenix definition. Results: A total of 259 men started HT 2 to 3 months before HDRT, but not longer than 6 months, and 66 men with high-risk prostate cancer received HT for a longer duration. At 5 years, the biochemical failure rates after HDRT alone were 12%, 18%, and 29% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients, respectively (p < 0.0001). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis adjusted for covariates revealed that pretreatment PSA level was a significant factor, whereas risk group, Gleason score, T-stage, and age were not. When the patients were stratified by risk groups, the Cox proportion hazards regression model (after adjusting for pretreatment PSA, biopsy Gleason score, and T stage) did not reveal a significant effect on bNED or DFS by adding HT to HDRT Conclusion: The addition of HT did not significantly improve bNED survival or DFS in all prostate cancer patients receiving HDRT, but did approach significance in high-risk patient subgroup. The result of this study is hypothesis generating and requires testing in a prospective randomized trial.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1323-1329
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Issue number5
StatePublished - Apr 1 2011



  • Biochemical failure
  • Dose escalation
  • Hormone therapy
  • Prostate cancer
  • Radiation therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiation
  • Cancer Research

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