DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae

John F. Heidelberg, Jonathan A Eisen, William C. Nelson, Rebecca A. Clayton, Michelle L. Gwinn, Robert J. Dodson, Daniel H. Haft, Erin K. Hickey, Jeremy D. Peterson, Lowell Umayam, Steven R. Gill, Karen E. Nelson, Timothy D. Read, Hervé Tettelin, Delwood Richardson, Maria D. Ermolaeva, Jessica Vamathevan, Steven Bass, Qin Halving, Ioana DragolPatrick Sellers, Lisa McDonald, Teresa Utterback, Robert D. Fleishmann, William C. Nierman, Owen White, Steven L. Saizberg, Hamilton O. Smith, Rita R. Colwell, John J. Mekalanos, Craig J. Venter, Claire M. Fraser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1226 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Here we determine the complete genomic sequence of the Gram negative, γ-Proteobacterium Vibrio cholerae El Tor N16961 to be 4,033,460 base pairs (bp). The genome consists of two circular chromosomes of 2,961,146 bp and 1,072,314 bp that together encode 3,885 open reading frames. The vast majority of recognizable genes for essential cell functions (such as DNA replication, transcription, translation and cell-wall biosynthesis) and pathogenicity (for example, toxins, surface antigens and adhesins) are located on the large chromosome. In contrast, the small chromosome contains a larger fraction (59%) of hypothetical genes compared with the large chromosome (42%), and also contains many more genes that appear to have origins other than the γ-Proteobacteria. The small chromosome also carries a gene capture system (the integron island) and host 'addiction' genes that are typically found on plasmids; thus, the small chromosome may have originally been a megaplasmid that was captured by an ancestral Vibrio species. The V. cholerae genomic sequence provides a starting point for understanding how a free-living, environmental organism emerged to become a significant human bacterial pathogen.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)477-483
Number of pages7
JournalNature
Volume406
Issue number6795
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 3 2000
Externally publishedYes

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Vibrio cholerae
Cholera
Chromosomes
Base Pairing
Proteobacteria
Genes
Integrons
Vibrio
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2
Essential Genes
Surface Antigens
DNA Replication
Islands
Cell Wall
Open Reading Frames
Virulence
Plasmids
Genome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Heidelberg, J. F., Eisen, J. A., Nelson, W. C., Clayton, R. A., Gwinn, M. L., Dodson, R. J., ... Fraser, C. M. (2000). DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Nature, 406(6795), 477-483. https://doi.org/10.1038/35020000

DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. / Heidelberg, John F.; Eisen, Jonathan A; Nelson, William C.; Clayton, Rebecca A.; Gwinn, Michelle L.; Dodson, Robert J.; Haft, Daniel H.; Hickey, Erin K.; Peterson, Jeremy D.; Umayam, Lowell; Gill, Steven R.; Nelson, Karen E.; Read, Timothy D.; Tettelin, Hervé; Richardson, Delwood; Ermolaeva, Maria D.; Vamathevan, Jessica; Bass, Steven; Halving, Qin; Dragol, Ioana; Sellers, Patrick; McDonald, Lisa; Utterback, Teresa; Fleishmann, Robert D.; Nierman, William C.; White, Owen; Saizberg, Steven L.; Smith, Hamilton O.; Colwell, Rita R.; Mekalanos, John J.; Venter, Craig J.; Fraser, Claire M.

In: Nature, Vol. 406, No. 6795, 03.08.2000, p. 477-483.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Heidelberg, JF, Eisen, JA, Nelson, WC, Clayton, RA, Gwinn, ML, Dodson, RJ, Haft, DH, Hickey, EK, Peterson, JD, Umayam, L, Gill, SR, Nelson, KE, Read, TD, Tettelin, H, Richardson, D, Ermolaeva, MD, Vamathevan, J, Bass, S, Halving, Q, Dragol, I, Sellers, P, McDonald, L, Utterback, T, Fleishmann, RD, Nierman, WC, White, O, Saizberg, SL, Smith, HO, Colwell, RR, Mekalanos, JJ, Venter, CJ & Fraser, CM 2000, 'DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae', Nature, vol. 406, no. 6795, pp. 477-483. https://doi.org/10.1038/35020000
Heidelberg JF, Eisen JA, Nelson WC, Clayton RA, Gwinn ML, Dodson RJ et al. DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Nature. 2000 Aug 3;406(6795):477-483. https://doi.org/10.1038/35020000
Heidelberg, John F. ; Eisen, Jonathan A ; Nelson, William C. ; Clayton, Rebecca A. ; Gwinn, Michelle L. ; Dodson, Robert J. ; Haft, Daniel H. ; Hickey, Erin K. ; Peterson, Jeremy D. ; Umayam, Lowell ; Gill, Steven R. ; Nelson, Karen E. ; Read, Timothy D. ; Tettelin, Hervé ; Richardson, Delwood ; Ermolaeva, Maria D. ; Vamathevan, Jessica ; Bass, Steven ; Halving, Qin ; Dragol, Ioana ; Sellers, Patrick ; McDonald, Lisa ; Utterback, Teresa ; Fleishmann, Robert D. ; Nierman, William C. ; White, Owen ; Saizberg, Steven L. ; Smith, Hamilton O. ; Colwell, Rita R. ; Mekalanos, John J. ; Venter, Craig J. ; Fraser, Claire M. / DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. In: Nature. 2000 ; Vol. 406, No. 6795. pp. 477-483.
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AU - Dodson, Robert J.

AU - Haft, Daniel H.

AU - Hickey, Erin K.

AU - Peterson, Jeremy D.

AU - Umayam, Lowell

AU - Gill, Steven R.

AU - Nelson, Karen E.

AU - Read, Timothy D.

AU - Tettelin, Hervé

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N2 - Here we determine the complete genomic sequence of the Gram negative, γ-Proteobacterium Vibrio cholerae El Tor N16961 to be 4,033,460 base pairs (bp). The genome consists of two circular chromosomes of 2,961,146 bp and 1,072,314 bp that together encode 3,885 open reading frames. The vast majority of recognizable genes for essential cell functions (such as DNA replication, transcription, translation and cell-wall biosynthesis) and pathogenicity (for example, toxins, surface antigens and adhesins) are located on the large chromosome. In contrast, the small chromosome contains a larger fraction (59%) of hypothetical genes compared with the large chromosome (42%), and also contains many more genes that appear to have origins other than the γ-Proteobacteria. The small chromosome also carries a gene capture system (the integron island) and host 'addiction' genes that are typically found on plasmids; thus, the small chromosome may have originally been a megaplasmid that was captured by an ancestral Vibrio species. The V. cholerae genomic sequence provides a starting point for understanding how a free-living, environmental organism emerged to become a significant human bacterial pathogen.

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