Transcriptional regulation in retroviruses resides in the U3 region of the proviral long terminal repeat (LTR). Transcription binding sites (TBS) in the U3 region of proviral sequences derived from the milk of 17 goats infected with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) were analysed by nested PCR and sequencing. U3 sequences shared a high degree of homology (86-99%) and were closely related to isolates previously ascribed to small ruminant lentivirus subtype B1. Multiple putative AP-1, AP-4, Ets-1, Stat-1 and TATA binding protein (TBP) sites were highly conserved (>85% of isolates), as were single AML(vis), GAS, IRF-1, NFAT and TAS sites. A 10 nucleotide insertion of undetermined relevance was identified in the U3 region of two isolates. To study the stability of TBS within the CAEV U3 region through in vitro passage, milk-derived isolates of CAEV from three infected dams were cultured in goat synovial membrane (GSM) cells; in one isolate the viral U3 region was completely stable during in vitro passage, in a second isolate the viral U3 region accumulated multiple deletions, single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions, while a third isolate had an intermediate degree of promoter stability. Promoter mutations arising during in vitro passage did not affect most of the conserved putative TBS identified in CAEV.
- Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus
- Long terminal repeat
- Transcription binding sites
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Animal Science and Zoology