Distinguishing type 2 diabetes from type 1 diabetes in African American and Hispanic American pediatric patients

Nancy Keller, Suruchi Bhatia, Jeanah N. Braden, Ginny Gildengorin, Jameel Johnson, Rachel Yedlin, Teresa Tseng, Jacquelyn Knapp, Nicole Glaser, Paula Jossan, Shawn Teran, Erinn T. Rhodes, Janelle A. Noble

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: To test the hypothesis that clinical observations made at patient presentation can distinguish type 2 diabetes (T2D) from type 1 diabetes (T1D) in pediatric patients aged 2 to 18. Subjects and Methods: Medical records of 227 African American and 112 Hispanic American pediatric patients diagnosed as T1D or T2D were examined to compare parameters in the two diseases. Age at presentation, BMI z-score, and gender were the variables used in logistic regression analysis to create models for T2D prediction. Results: The regression-based model created from African American data had a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 89%; testing of a replication cohort showed 91% sensitivity and 93% specificity. A model based on the Hispanic American data showed 92% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Similarities between African American and Hispanic American patients include: (1) age at onset for both T1D and T2D decreased from the 1980s to the 2000s; (2) risk of T2D increased markedly with obesity. Racial/ethnic-specific observations included: (1) in African American patients, the proportion of females was significantly higher than that of males for T2D compared to T1D (p<0.0001); (2) in Hispanic Americans, the level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was significantly higher in T1D than in T2D (p<0.002) at presentation; (3) the strongest contributor to T2D risk was female gender in African Americans, while the strongest contributor to T2D risk was BMI z-score in Hispanic Americans. Conclusions: Distinction of T2D from T1D at patient presentation was possible with good sensitivity and specificity using only three easily-assessed variables: age, gender, and BMI z-score. In African American pediatric diabetes patients, gender was the strongest predictor of T2D, while in Hispanic patients, BMI z-score was the strongest predictor. This suggests that race/ethnic specific models may be useful to optimize distinction of T1D from T2D at presentation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere32773
JournalPLoS One
Volume7
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 7 2012

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Hispanic Americans
Pediatrics
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
African Americans
Medical problems
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
glycohemoglobin
gender
Sensitivity and Specificity
Glycosylated Hemoglobin A
Age of Onset

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Keller, N., Bhatia, S., Braden, J. N., Gildengorin, G., Johnson, J., Yedlin, R., ... Noble, J. A. (2012). Distinguishing type 2 diabetes from type 1 diabetes in African American and Hispanic American pediatric patients. PLoS One, 7(3), [e32773]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032773

Distinguishing type 2 diabetes from type 1 diabetes in African American and Hispanic American pediatric patients. / Keller, Nancy; Bhatia, Suruchi; Braden, Jeanah N.; Gildengorin, Ginny; Johnson, Jameel; Yedlin, Rachel; Tseng, Teresa; Knapp, Jacquelyn; Glaser, Nicole; Jossan, Paula; Teran, Shawn; Rhodes, Erinn T.; Noble, Janelle A.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 7, No. 3, e32773, 07.03.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Keller, N, Bhatia, S, Braden, JN, Gildengorin, G, Johnson, J, Yedlin, R, Tseng, T, Knapp, J, Glaser, N, Jossan, P, Teran, S, Rhodes, ET & Noble, JA 2012, 'Distinguishing type 2 diabetes from type 1 diabetes in African American and Hispanic American pediatric patients', PLoS One, vol. 7, no. 3, e32773. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0032773
Keller, Nancy ; Bhatia, Suruchi ; Braden, Jeanah N. ; Gildengorin, Ginny ; Johnson, Jameel ; Yedlin, Rachel ; Tseng, Teresa ; Knapp, Jacquelyn ; Glaser, Nicole ; Jossan, Paula ; Teran, Shawn ; Rhodes, Erinn T. ; Noble, Janelle A. / Distinguishing type 2 diabetes from type 1 diabetes in African American and Hispanic American pediatric patients. In: PLoS One. 2012 ; Vol. 7, No. 3.
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abstract = "Objective: To test the hypothesis that clinical observations made at patient presentation can distinguish type 2 diabetes (T2D) from type 1 diabetes (T1D) in pediatric patients aged 2 to 18. Subjects and Methods: Medical records of 227 African American and 112 Hispanic American pediatric patients diagnosed as T1D or T2D were examined to compare parameters in the two diseases. Age at presentation, BMI z-score, and gender were the variables used in logistic regression analysis to create models for T2D prediction. Results: The regression-based model created from African American data had a sensitivity of 92{\%} and a specificity of 89{\%}; testing of a replication cohort showed 91{\%} sensitivity and 93{\%} specificity. A model based on the Hispanic American data showed 92{\%} sensitivity and 90{\%} specificity. Similarities between African American and Hispanic American patients include: (1) age at onset for both T1D and T2D decreased from the 1980s to the 2000s; (2) risk of T2D increased markedly with obesity. Racial/ethnic-specific observations included: (1) in African American patients, the proportion of females was significantly higher than that of males for T2D compared to T1D (p<0.0001); (2) in Hispanic Americans, the level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was significantly higher in T1D than in T2D (p<0.002) at presentation; (3) the strongest contributor to T2D risk was female gender in African Americans, while the strongest contributor to T2D risk was BMI z-score in Hispanic Americans. Conclusions: Distinction of T2D from T1D at patient presentation was possible with good sensitivity and specificity using only three easily-assessed variables: age, gender, and BMI z-score. In African American pediatric diabetes patients, gender was the strongest predictor of T2D, while in Hispanic patients, BMI z-score was the strongest predictor. This suggests that race/ethnic specific models may be useful to optimize distinction of T1D from T2D at presentation.",
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AU - Johnson, Jameel

AU - Yedlin, Rachel

AU - Tseng, Teresa

AU - Knapp, Jacquelyn

AU - Glaser, Nicole

AU - Jossan, Paula

AU - Teran, Shawn

AU - Rhodes, Erinn T.

AU - Noble, Janelle A.

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N2 - Objective: To test the hypothesis that clinical observations made at patient presentation can distinguish type 2 diabetes (T2D) from type 1 diabetes (T1D) in pediatric patients aged 2 to 18. Subjects and Methods: Medical records of 227 African American and 112 Hispanic American pediatric patients diagnosed as T1D or T2D were examined to compare parameters in the two diseases. Age at presentation, BMI z-score, and gender were the variables used in logistic regression analysis to create models for T2D prediction. Results: The regression-based model created from African American data had a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 89%; testing of a replication cohort showed 91% sensitivity and 93% specificity. A model based on the Hispanic American data showed 92% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Similarities between African American and Hispanic American patients include: (1) age at onset for both T1D and T2D decreased from the 1980s to the 2000s; (2) risk of T2D increased markedly with obesity. Racial/ethnic-specific observations included: (1) in African American patients, the proportion of females was significantly higher than that of males for T2D compared to T1D (p<0.0001); (2) in Hispanic Americans, the level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was significantly higher in T1D than in T2D (p<0.002) at presentation; (3) the strongest contributor to T2D risk was female gender in African Americans, while the strongest contributor to T2D risk was BMI z-score in Hispanic Americans. Conclusions: Distinction of T2D from T1D at patient presentation was possible with good sensitivity and specificity using only three easily-assessed variables: age, gender, and BMI z-score. In African American pediatric diabetes patients, gender was the strongest predictor of T2D, while in Hispanic patients, BMI z-score was the strongest predictor. This suggests that race/ethnic specific models may be useful to optimize distinction of T1D from T2D at presentation.

AB - Objective: To test the hypothesis that clinical observations made at patient presentation can distinguish type 2 diabetes (T2D) from type 1 diabetes (T1D) in pediatric patients aged 2 to 18. Subjects and Methods: Medical records of 227 African American and 112 Hispanic American pediatric patients diagnosed as T1D or T2D were examined to compare parameters in the two diseases. Age at presentation, BMI z-score, and gender were the variables used in logistic regression analysis to create models for T2D prediction. Results: The regression-based model created from African American data had a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 89%; testing of a replication cohort showed 91% sensitivity and 93% specificity. A model based on the Hispanic American data showed 92% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Similarities between African American and Hispanic American patients include: (1) age at onset for both T1D and T2D decreased from the 1980s to the 2000s; (2) risk of T2D increased markedly with obesity. Racial/ethnic-specific observations included: (1) in African American patients, the proportion of females was significantly higher than that of males for T2D compared to T1D (p<0.0001); (2) in Hispanic Americans, the level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was significantly higher in T1D than in T2D (p<0.002) at presentation; (3) the strongest contributor to T2D risk was female gender in African Americans, while the strongest contributor to T2D risk was BMI z-score in Hispanic Americans. Conclusions: Distinction of T2D from T1D at patient presentation was possible with good sensitivity and specificity using only three easily-assessed variables: age, gender, and BMI z-score. In African American pediatric diabetes patients, gender was the strongest predictor of T2D, while in Hispanic patients, BMI z-score was the strongest predictor. This suggests that race/ethnic specific models may be useful to optimize distinction of T1D from T2D at presentation.

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