Distinguishing highly confident accurate and inaccurate memory: Insights about relevant and irrelevant influences on memory confidence

Elizabeth F. Chua, Deborah E. Hannula, Charan Ranganath

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

It is generally believed that accuracy and confidence in one's memory are related, but there are many instances when they diverge. Accordingly it is important to disentangle the factors that contribute to memory accuracy and confidence, especially those factors that contribute to confidence, but not accuracy. We used eye movements to separately measure fluent cue processing, the target recognition experience, and relative evidence assessment on recognition confidence and accuracy. Eye movements were monitored during a face-scene associative recognition task, in which participants first saw a scene cue, followed by a forced-choice recognition test for the associated face, with confidence ratings. Eye movement indices of the target recognition experience were largely indicative of accuracy, and showed a relationship to confidence for accurate decisions. In contrast, eye movements during the scene cue raised the possibility that more fluent cue processing was related to higher confidence for both accurate and inaccurate recognition decisions. In a second experiment we manipulated cue familiarity, and therefore cue fluency. Participants showed higher confidence for cue-target associations for when the cue was more familiar, especially for incorrect responses. These results suggest that over-reliance on cue familiarity and under-reliance on the target recognition experience may lead to erroneous confidence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)48-62
Number of pages15
JournalMemory
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2012

Fingerprint

Cues
Eye Movements
Recognition (Psychology)
Confidence

Keywords

  • Confidence
  • Eye tracking
  • Metamemory
  • Relational memory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)

Cite this

Distinguishing highly confident accurate and inaccurate memory : Insights about relevant and irrelevant influences on memory confidence. / Chua, Elizabeth F.; Hannula, Deborah E.; Ranganath, Charan.

In: Memory, Vol. 20, No. 1, 01.2012, p. 48-62.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chua, Elizabeth F. ; Hannula, Deborah E. ; Ranganath, Charan. / Distinguishing highly confident accurate and inaccurate memory : Insights about relevant and irrelevant influences on memory confidence. In: Memory. 2012 ; Vol. 20, No. 1. pp. 48-62.
@article{76481c788dc549128f4487664be4d35b,
title = "Distinguishing highly confident accurate and inaccurate memory: Insights about relevant and irrelevant influences on memory confidence",
abstract = "It is generally believed that accuracy and confidence in one's memory are related, but there are many instances when they diverge. Accordingly it is important to disentangle the factors that contribute to memory accuracy and confidence, especially those factors that contribute to confidence, but not accuracy. We used eye movements to separately measure fluent cue processing, the target recognition experience, and relative evidence assessment on recognition confidence and accuracy. Eye movements were monitored during a face-scene associative recognition task, in which participants first saw a scene cue, followed by a forced-choice recognition test for the associated face, with confidence ratings. Eye movement indices of the target recognition experience were largely indicative of accuracy, and showed a relationship to confidence for accurate decisions. In contrast, eye movements during the scene cue raised the possibility that more fluent cue processing was related to higher confidence for both accurate and inaccurate recognition decisions. In a second experiment we manipulated cue familiarity, and therefore cue fluency. Participants showed higher confidence for cue-target associations for when the cue was more familiar, especially for incorrect responses. These results suggest that over-reliance on cue familiarity and under-reliance on the target recognition experience may lead to erroneous confidence.",
keywords = "Confidence, Eye tracking, Metamemory, Relational memory",
author = "Chua, {Elizabeth F.} and Hannula, {Deborah E.} and Charan Ranganath",
year = "2012",
month = "1",
doi = "10.1080/09658211.2011.633919",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "20",
pages = "48--62",
journal = "Memory",
issn = "0965-8211",
publisher = "Psychology Press Ltd",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Distinguishing highly confident accurate and inaccurate memory

T2 - Insights about relevant and irrelevant influences on memory confidence

AU - Chua, Elizabeth F.

AU - Hannula, Deborah E.

AU - Ranganath, Charan

PY - 2012/1

Y1 - 2012/1

N2 - It is generally believed that accuracy and confidence in one's memory are related, but there are many instances when they diverge. Accordingly it is important to disentangle the factors that contribute to memory accuracy and confidence, especially those factors that contribute to confidence, but not accuracy. We used eye movements to separately measure fluent cue processing, the target recognition experience, and relative evidence assessment on recognition confidence and accuracy. Eye movements were monitored during a face-scene associative recognition task, in which participants first saw a scene cue, followed by a forced-choice recognition test for the associated face, with confidence ratings. Eye movement indices of the target recognition experience were largely indicative of accuracy, and showed a relationship to confidence for accurate decisions. In contrast, eye movements during the scene cue raised the possibility that more fluent cue processing was related to higher confidence for both accurate and inaccurate recognition decisions. In a second experiment we manipulated cue familiarity, and therefore cue fluency. Participants showed higher confidence for cue-target associations for when the cue was more familiar, especially for incorrect responses. These results suggest that over-reliance on cue familiarity and under-reliance on the target recognition experience may lead to erroneous confidence.

AB - It is generally believed that accuracy and confidence in one's memory are related, but there are many instances when they diverge. Accordingly it is important to disentangle the factors that contribute to memory accuracy and confidence, especially those factors that contribute to confidence, but not accuracy. We used eye movements to separately measure fluent cue processing, the target recognition experience, and relative evidence assessment on recognition confidence and accuracy. Eye movements were monitored during a face-scene associative recognition task, in which participants first saw a scene cue, followed by a forced-choice recognition test for the associated face, with confidence ratings. Eye movement indices of the target recognition experience were largely indicative of accuracy, and showed a relationship to confidence for accurate decisions. In contrast, eye movements during the scene cue raised the possibility that more fluent cue processing was related to higher confidence for both accurate and inaccurate recognition decisions. In a second experiment we manipulated cue familiarity, and therefore cue fluency. Participants showed higher confidence for cue-target associations for when the cue was more familiar, especially for incorrect responses. These results suggest that over-reliance on cue familiarity and under-reliance on the target recognition experience may lead to erroneous confidence.

KW - Confidence

KW - Eye tracking

KW - Metamemory

KW - Relational memory

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84858966671&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84858966671&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/09658211.2011.633919

DO - 10.1080/09658211.2011.633919

M3 - Article

C2 - 22171810

AN - SCOPUS:84858966671

VL - 20

SP - 48

EP - 62

JO - Memory

JF - Memory

SN - 0965-8211

IS - 1

ER -