Diseases Produced by Clostridium perfringens Type D

Francisco A Uzal, Federico Giannitti, John W. Finnie, Jorge P. García

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

17 Scopus citations


Enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringens type D, sometimes also called overeating disease or pulpy kidney disease, is a prevalent clostridial disease of sheep and goats. This chapter discusses the etiology, epidemiology and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment of diseases produced by C. perfringens type D. Type D enterotoxemia in sheep is a pure enterotoxemia, with no bacterial invasion of tissues, whereas in goats it may be a pure enterotoxemia, a localized enteric disease, or a combination of both. C. perfringens type D produces two typing toxins, namely alpha (CPA) and epsilon (ETX), although most type D isolates may express several other toxins. In sheep, a presumptive clinical diagnosis can be based on a history of access to heavy grain or concentrate feeding or abundant lush pasture, and clinical signs, especially in unvaccinated thriving lambs. Immunity in sheep is readily produced by vaccination, most vaccines being alum-adsorbed ETX toxoid.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationClostridial Diseases in Animals
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)9781118728291
ISBN (Print)9781118728406
StatePublished - Apr 8 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Adult goats
  • Adult sheep
  • Alpha toxin
  • C. perfringens Type D
  • Enterotoxemia
  • Epsilon toxin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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