Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) affects numerous species, especially humans and animals with expanded large bowels, such as gerbils, guinea pigs, hamsters, horses, rabbits, swine, and others. This chapter focuses on enterocolitis of horses, and typhlocolitis of pigs. The two main risk factors for the development of CDAD in horses are antibiotic therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics and hospitalization. C. difficile toxinotype V/ribotype 078, often associated with community acquired C. difficile infection in humans, is the predominant ribotype found in pigs. Adult horses with CDAD may have abdominal discomfort or fever without diarrhea and sometimes small intestinal ileus and gas distention may be the primary complaint. CDAD should be considered a differential diagnosis in horses with compatible clinical history, clinical signs, gross and/or microscopic findings. Experience suggests that it is not possible to completely control CDAD by environmental cleaning and disinfection.
- Animal diseases
- Clostridium difficile-associated disease
- Differential diagnosis
- Veterinary medicine
ASJC Scopus subject areas