Pythiosis is characterized most commonly by ulcerative dermatitis, mainly in the limbs of sheep and occasionally of goats. In sheep, Pythium insidiosum is also responsible for necrotizing rhinitis characterized by marked enlargement and deformity of the nasal region, severe respiratory difficulty, and bloody nasal discharge. A third form of pythiosis in sheep affects the digestive tract, involving ulceration of the esophagus, forestomachs, and abomasum. Pythiosis in sheep and goats has been reported only in Brazil where it occurs mainly in the semiarid region of the country, when animals congregate and stay for longer periods of time within or around water reservoirs. However, it has been reported as well in areas of humid environments, such as the Pantanal of Mato Grosso and in the Brazilian Cerrado. The diagnosis of the different presentations of pythiosis is based on gross and microscopic findings, coupled with detection of the agent by immunohistochemical, molecular, and/or culture-based methods.
- Pythium insidiosum
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