The interaction of long nanowires and living cells is directly related to nanowires' nanotoxicity and health impacts. Interactions of silver nanowires (AgNWs) and macrophage cell lines (NR8383) were investigated using laser scanning confocal microscopy and single cell compression (SCC). With high-resolution imaging and mechanics measurement of individual cells, AgNW-induced frustrated phagocytosis was clearly captured in conjunction with structural and property changes of cells. While frustrated phagocytosis is known for long microwires and long carbon nanotubes, this work reports first direct observations of frustrated phagocytosis of AgNWs among living cells in situ. In the case of partial penetration of AgNWs into NR8383 cells, confocal imaging revealed actin participation at the entry sites, whose behavior differs from microwire-induced frustrated phagocytosis. The impacts of frustrated phagocytosis on the cellular membrane and cytoskeleton were also quantified by measuring the mechanical properties using SCC. Taken collectively, this study reveals the structural and property characteristics of nanowire-induced frustrated phagocytosis, which deepens our understanding of nanowire-cell interactions and nanocytotoxicity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry