Dimensions of shyness in fragile X females

W. E. Sobesky, D. Porter, B. F. Pennington, Randi J Hagerman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Shyness has long been identified as a component of the behavioral phenotype of fragile X [fra(X)] syndrome. The purpose of the present study was to explore possible dimensions of shyness in adult fra(X) women and to examine the relationship of those dimensions to CGG repeat size and neurocognitive functioning. Two hundred and nine women completed a neurocognitive battery, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and the Structured Interview for Schizotypy (SIS). Women were grouped into four categories: (1) control women, many with developmentally disabled children; (2) control women who grew up in fra(X) families, (3) premutation women (CGG repeats < 200), and (4) full mutation women (CGG > 200). Elements from the MMPI-2 and the SIS dealing with shyness and social behavior were subjected to a principal component factor analysis with an oblique rotation. The procedure yielded four factors: extraversion, interpersonal comfort, child/adolescent gregariousness and openness. Groups differed in only one of the factors, with full mutation women displaying significantly less interpersonal comfort than the other three groups. This style was related to neurocognitive functioning and to CGG repeat size. The multidimensional nature of social behavior in fra(X) is discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)280-292
Number of pages13
JournalDevelopmental Brain Dysfunction
Issue number4-6
StatePublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes


  • fragile X females
  • neurocognitive deficits
  • schizotypy
  • shyness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neuroscience(all)


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