Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P<0.005) irrespective of duration, sex or age. Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55±0.26 to 3.28±0.23ng/ml (N=42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63±0.29 to 3.93±0.34ng/ml (N=45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43±0.32 versus 3.39±0.24ng/ml, N=26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations.
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