Differential pulmonary effects of wintertime California and China particulate matter in healthy young mice

Xiaolin Sun, Haiying Wei, Dominique E. Young, Keith J. Bein, Suzette M. Smiley-Jewell, Qi Zhang, Ciara Catherine B. Fulgar, Alejandro R. Castañeda, Alexa K. Pham, Wei Li, Kent E Pinkerton

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Abstract

Airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse cardiorespiratory effects. To better understand source-orientated PM toxicity, a comparative study of the biological effects of fine PM (diameter ≤ 2.5 μm, PM2.5) collected during the winter season from Shanxi Province, China, and the Central Valley, California, United States, was conducted. The overarching hypothesis for this study was to test whether the chemical composition of PM on an equal mass basis from two urban areas, one in China and one in California, can lead to significantly different effects of acute toxicity and inflammation in the lungs of healthy young mice. Male, 8-week old BALB/C mice received a single 50 μg dose of vehicle, Taiyuan PM or Sacramento PM by oropharyngeal aspiration and were sacrificed 24 h later. Bronchoalveolar lavage, ELISA and histopathology were performed along with chemical analysis of PM composition. Sacramento PM had a greater proportion of oxidized organic material, significantly increased neutrophil numbers and elevated CXCL-1 and TNF-α protein levels compared to the Taiyuan PM. The findings suggest that Sacramento PM2.5 was associated with a greater inflammatory response compared to that of Taiyuan PM2.5 that may be due to a higher oxidice. Male, 8-week old BALB/C mice received a single 50 μg dose of vehicle, Taiyuan PM or Sacramento PM by oropharyngeal aspiration and were sacrificed 24 h later. Bronchoalveolar lavage, ELISA and histopathology were performed along with chemical analysis of PM composition. Sacramento PM had a greater proportion of oxidized organic material, significantly increased neutrophil numbers and elevated CXCL-1 and TNF-α protein levels compared to the Taiyuan PM. The findings suggest that Sacramento PM2.5 was associated with a greater inflammatory response compared to that of Taiyuan PM2.5 that may be due to a higher oxidized state of organic carbon and copper content.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalToxicology Letters
Volume278
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 15 2017

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Keywords

  • Air pollution
  • Chemokines
  • Cytokines
  • Inflammation
  • Lung

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

Cite this

Sun, X., Wei, H., Young, D. E., Bein, K. J., Smiley-Jewell, S. M., Zhang, Q., Fulgar, C. C. B., Castañeda, A. R., Pham, A. K., Li, W., & Pinkerton, K. E. (2017). Differential pulmonary effects of wintertime California and China particulate matter in healthy young mice. Toxicology Letters, 278, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2017.07.853