Different capacities of carp leukocytes to encounter nitric oxide-mediated stress: A role for the intracellular reduced glutathione pool

Jeroen Saeij, Willem B. Van Muiswinkel, Marian Van De Meent, Catharina Amaral, Geert F. Wiegertjes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Scopus citations


Carp head kidney (HK) phagocytes can be stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to produce nitric oxide (NO). High production of NO can suppress the carp immune system. Carp peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) are highly susceptible but HK phagocytes are relatively resistant to the immunosuppressive effects of NO. This study demonstrates that the antioxidant glutathione plays an important role in the protection against nitrosative stress. Carp HK phagocytes, especially the neutrophilic granulocytes, contain higher levels of glutathione than PBL. Moreover, freshly isolated carp neutrophilic granulocytes have higher mRNA levels than PBL of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS). Since these molecules are part of the glutathione redox cycle, neutrophilic granulocytes have a higher capacity than PBL to maintain glutathione in a reduced state following nitrosative stress. When stimulated with LPS, neutrophilic granulocytes upregulate the expression of G6PD, MnSOD and γ-GCS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)555-568
Number of pages14
JournalDevelopmental and Comparative Immunology
Issue number6-7
StatePublished - 2003
Externally publishedYes



  • Carp
  • Fish
  • G6PD
  • Glutathione
  • MnSOD
  • Nitric oxide
  • Phagocytes
  • γ-GCS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Developmental Biology

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