Diethylcarbamazine-induced Dirofilaria immitis larval death, as indicated by immunoglobulin E concentration, in dogs with concurrent Ancylostoma caninum infection

G. R. Yamagata, Laurel J Gershwin, M. M. Wong

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Abstract

Immunoglobulin E is produced in response to parasitic nematodes that undergo blood and tissue migrations. Results of our previous studies indicated that IgE and IgG respond to Dirofilaria immitis in experimentally infected dogs. To determine the association between treatment with the larvicide, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and antibody responses and to examine the potential influence of infection with a nonfilarid intestinal nematode on isotype-specific immune responses, we monitored, by use of isotype-specific ELISA, separate IgE and IgG responses against D immitis in 4 groups (A-D) of 8 dogs experimentally coinfected with D immitis and Ancylostoma caninum. All dogs were monitored from 2 weeks before inoculation with D immitis, through postinoculation (PI) week 20. Group-B dogs received a daily regimen of 6.6 mg of DEC/kg of body weight. Group-C dogs received 4.95 mg of oxibendazole/kg daily. Group-D dogs received DEC and oxibendazole, equivalent to the daily doses given to dogs of groups B and C. All dogs given oxibendazole had no A caninum at necropsy. Of the groups receiving DEC, 3 group-B dogs each had 1 to 2 D immitis at necropsy. When results of chronologic IgE determination for all groups were statistically compared, only groups B and C had significant (P = 0.0148 and P << 0.00005, respectively) increases in IgE values. Group-C dogs had the highest IgE values from PI week 10 until the end of the study, whereas IgG values were statistically identical to those of group-A dogs. Group-B dogs given only DEC and having the least number of D immitis of all groups, had IgE values that peaked at PI week 6; values were significantly (P = 0.0002) higher than those for all other groups. In Group-B dogs, IgG values increased significantly (P << 0.00005) only at PI week 20 and were significantly (P << 0.00005) decreased after PI week 6, compared with values for all other groups. Group D containing 6 dogs infected with 1 to 18 D immitis found at necropsy had IgE values between those of group-B dogs and those of nonDEC-treated groups at PI week 6. There was no difference in IgG values between 3 groups at PI week 6, and IgE values were found to be a better correlator than were IgG values to the number of D immitis larvae killed in the tissues during this period. All differences in IgG and IgE values not only correlated with treatment status and number of D immitis adults found at necropsy, but also with the developmental stage of D immitis commonly present in the groups at each time point and the number of adult D immitis found at necropsy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)174-178
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Veterinary Research
Volume56
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1995

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diethylcarbamazine
Diethylcarbamazine
Ancylostoma
Dirofilaria immitis
Ancylostoma caninum
immunoglobulin E
Immunoglobulin E
Dogs
death
dogs
Infection
infection
Immunoglobulin G
oxibendazole
necropsy
animal parasitic nematodes
larvicides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

@article{399413b349f147708fc2a7c1d97bd91e,
title = "Diethylcarbamazine-induced Dirofilaria immitis larval death, as indicated by immunoglobulin E concentration, in dogs with concurrent Ancylostoma caninum infection",
abstract = "Immunoglobulin E is produced in response to parasitic nematodes that undergo blood and tissue migrations. Results of our previous studies indicated that IgE and IgG respond to Dirofilaria immitis in experimentally infected dogs. To determine the association between treatment with the larvicide, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and antibody responses and to examine the potential influence of infection with a nonfilarid intestinal nematode on isotype-specific immune responses, we monitored, by use of isotype-specific ELISA, separate IgE and IgG responses against D immitis in 4 groups (A-D) of 8 dogs experimentally coinfected with D immitis and Ancylostoma caninum. All dogs were monitored from 2 weeks before inoculation with D immitis, through postinoculation (PI) week 20. Group-B dogs received a daily regimen of 6.6 mg of DEC/kg of body weight. Group-C dogs received 4.95 mg of oxibendazole/kg daily. Group-D dogs received DEC and oxibendazole, equivalent to the daily doses given to dogs of groups B and C. All dogs given oxibendazole had no A caninum at necropsy. Of the groups receiving DEC, 3 group-B dogs each had 1 to 2 D immitis at necropsy. When results of chronologic IgE determination for all groups were statistically compared, only groups B and C had significant (P = 0.0148 and P << 0.00005, respectively) increases in IgE values. Group-C dogs had the highest IgE values from PI week 10 until the end of the study, whereas IgG values were statistically identical to those of group-A dogs. Group-B dogs given only DEC and having the least number of D immitis of all groups, had IgE values that peaked at PI week 6; values were significantly (P = 0.0002) higher than those for all other groups. In Group-B dogs, IgG values increased significantly (P << 0.00005) only at PI week 20 and were significantly (P << 0.00005) decreased after PI week 6, compared with values for all other groups. Group D containing 6 dogs infected with 1 to 18 D immitis found at necropsy had IgE values between those of group-B dogs and those of nonDEC-treated groups at PI week 6. There was no difference in IgG values between 3 groups at PI week 6, and IgE values were found to be a better correlator than were IgG values to the number of D immitis larvae killed in the tissues during this period. All differences in IgG and IgE values not only correlated with treatment status and number of D immitis adults found at necropsy, but also with the developmental stage of D immitis commonly present in the groups at each time point and the number of adult D immitis found at necropsy.",
author = "Yamagata, {G. R.} and Gershwin, {Laurel J} and Wong, {M. M.}",
year = "1995",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "56",
pages = "174--178",
journal = "American Journal of Veterinary Research",
issn = "0002-9645",
publisher = "American Veterinary Medical Association",
number = "2",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Diethylcarbamazine-induced Dirofilaria immitis larval death, as indicated by immunoglobulin E concentration, in dogs with concurrent Ancylostoma caninum infection

AU - Yamagata, G. R.

AU - Gershwin, Laurel J

AU - Wong, M. M.

PY - 1995

Y1 - 1995

N2 - Immunoglobulin E is produced in response to parasitic nematodes that undergo blood and tissue migrations. Results of our previous studies indicated that IgE and IgG respond to Dirofilaria immitis in experimentally infected dogs. To determine the association between treatment with the larvicide, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and antibody responses and to examine the potential influence of infection with a nonfilarid intestinal nematode on isotype-specific immune responses, we monitored, by use of isotype-specific ELISA, separate IgE and IgG responses against D immitis in 4 groups (A-D) of 8 dogs experimentally coinfected with D immitis and Ancylostoma caninum. All dogs were monitored from 2 weeks before inoculation with D immitis, through postinoculation (PI) week 20. Group-B dogs received a daily regimen of 6.6 mg of DEC/kg of body weight. Group-C dogs received 4.95 mg of oxibendazole/kg daily. Group-D dogs received DEC and oxibendazole, equivalent to the daily doses given to dogs of groups B and C. All dogs given oxibendazole had no A caninum at necropsy. Of the groups receiving DEC, 3 group-B dogs each had 1 to 2 D immitis at necropsy. When results of chronologic IgE determination for all groups were statistically compared, only groups B and C had significant (P = 0.0148 and P << 0.00005, respectively) increases in IgE values. Group-C dogs had the highest IgE values from PI week 10 until the end of the study, whereas IgG values were statistically identical to those of group-A dogs. Group-B dogs given only DEC and having the least number of D immitis of all groups, had IgE values that peaked at PI week 6; values were significantly (P = 0.0002) higher than those for all other groups. In Group-B dogs, IgG values increased significantly (P << 0.00005) only at PI week 20 and were significantly (P << 0.00005) decreased after PI week 6, compared with values for all other groups. Group D containing 6 dogs infected with 1 to 18 D immitis found at necropsy had IgE values between those of group-B dogs and those of nonDEC-treated groups at PI week 6. There was no difference in IgG values between 3 groups at PI week 6, and IgE values were found to be a better correlator than were IgG values to the number of D immitis larvae killed in the tissues during this period. All differences in IgG and IgE values not only correlated with treatment status and number of D immitis adults found at necropsy, but also with the developmental stage of D immitis commonly present in the groups at each time point and the number of adult D immitis found at necropsy.

AB - Immunoglobulin E is produced in response to parasitic nematodes that undergo blood and tissue migrations. Results of our previous studies indicated that IgE and IgG respond to Dirofilaria immitis in experimentally infected dogs. To determine the association between treatment with the larvicide, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and antibody responses and to examine the potential influence of infection with a nonfilarid intestinal nematode on isotype-specific immune responses, we monitored, by use of isotype-specific ELISA, separate IgE and IgG responses against D immitis in 4 groups (A-D) of 8 dogs experimentally coinfected with D immitis and Ancylostoma caninum. All dogs were monitored from 2 weeks before inoculation with D immitis, through postinoculation (PI) week 20. Group-B dogs received a daily regimen of 6.6 mg of DEC/kg of body weight. Group-C dogs received 4.95 mg of oxibendazole/kg daily. Group-D dogs received DEC and oxibendazole, equivalent to the daily doses given to dogs of groups B and C. All dogs given oxibendazole had no A caninum at necropsy. Of the groups receiving DEC, 3 group-B dogs each had 1 to 2 D immitis at necropsy. When results of chronologic IgE determination for all groups were statistically compared, only groups B and C had significant (P = 0.0148 and P << 0.00005, respectively) increases in IgE values. Group-C dogs had the highest IgE values from PI week 10 until the end of the study, whereas IgG values were statistically identical to those of group-A dogs. Group-B dogs given only DEC and having the least number of D immitis of all groups, had IgE values that peaked at PI week 6; values were significantly (P = 0.0002) higher than those for all other groups. In Group-B dogs, IgG values increased significantly (P << 0.00005) only at PI week 20 and were significantly (P << 0.00005) decreased after PI week 6, compared with values for all other groups. Group D containing 6 dogs infected with 1 to 18 D immitis found at necropsy had IgE values between those of group-B dogs and those of nonDEC-treated groups at PI week 6. There was no difference in IgG values between 3 groups at PI week 6, and IgE values were found to be a better correlator than were IgG values to the number of D immitis larvae killed in the tissues during this period. All differences in IgG and IgE values not only correlated with treatment status and number of D immitis adults found at necropsy, but also with the developmental stage of D immitis commonly present in the groups at each time point and the number of adult D immitis found at necropsy.

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