Dietary quality and glycemic control among women with gestational diabetes mellitus

Meghana D. Gadgil, Samantha F. Ehrlich, Yeyi Zhu, Susan D. Brown, Monique M. Hedderson, Yvonne Crites, Assiamira Ferrara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background/Objective: Poor dietary quality, measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), is associated with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and type 2 diabetes. The aim was to investigate the association between dietary quality and glycemic control in women with GDM. Materials and Methods: The study included 1220 women with GDM. Dietary quality was calculated by HEI-2010 score from a Food Frequency Questionnaire administered shortly after GDM diagnosis; higher scores indicate higher dietary quality. Subsequent glycemic control was defined as ≥80% of all capillary glucose measurements meeting recommended clinical targets below 95 mg/dL for fasting, and below 140 mg/dL 1-hour glucose after meals. Results: As compared with Quartile 1 of HEI-2010 score, Quartiles 2, 3, and 4 showed increased adjusted odds of overall optimal glycemic control (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 1.90 [1.34-2.70], 1.77 [1.25-2.52], and 1.55 [1.09-2.20], respectively). Increased odds of glycemic control were observed in Quartiles 2, 3, and 4 as compared with Quartile 1 of HEI-2010 score for 1-hour postbreakfast and 1-hour postdinner. Mean capillary glucose was lower in Quartiles 2, 3, and 4 of HEI-2010 score when compared with Quartile 1 for 1-hour postdinner (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Clinicians should be aware that even a small improvement in diet quality may be beneficial for the achievement of improved glycemic control in women with GDM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)178-184
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Women's Health
Volume28
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2019
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • diet
  • gestational diabetes
  • glycemic control
  • nutrition
  • pregnancy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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