Dietary fructose and dyslipidemia: New mechanisms involving apolipoprotein CIII

Bettina Hieronimus, Kimber L. Stanhope

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Purpose of reviewChronic consumption of fructose and fructose-containing sugars leads to dyslipidemia. Apolipoprotein (apo) CIII is strongly associated with elevated levels of triglycerides and cardiovascular disease risk. We reviewed the effects of fructose consumption on apoCIII levels and the role of apoCIII in fructose-induced dyslipidemia.Recent findingsConsumption of fructose increases circulating apoCIII levels compared with glucose. The more marked effects of fructose compared with glucose on apoCIII concentrations may involve the failure of fructose consumption to stimulate insulin secretion. The increase in apoCIII levels after fructose consumption correlates with increased postprandial serum triglyceride. Further, RNA interference of apoCIII prevents fructose-induced dyslipidemia in nonhuman primates. Increases in postprandial apoCIII after fructose, but not glucose consumption, are positively associated with elevated triglycerides in large triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and increased small dense LDL levels.SummaryApoCIII might be causal in the lipid dysregulation observed after consumption of fructose and fructose-containing sugars. Decreased consumption of fructose and fructose-containing sugars could be an effective strategy for reducing circulating apoCIII and subsequently lowering triglyceride levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)20-26
Number of pages7
JournalCurrent Opinion in Lipidology
Volume31
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2020

Keywords

  • apolipoprotein CIII
  • dyslipidemia
  • fructose

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Cell Biology

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