Diagnostic value of signs and symptoms of mammary candidosis among lactating women

Jimi Francis-Morill, M. Jane Heinig, Demosthenes Pappagianis, Kathryn G. Dewey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Mammary candidosis in lactating women is not well defined and is most often presumptively diagnosed by signs and symptoms. This study evaluates the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and likelihood ratios of signs and symptoms of mammary candidosis based on the presence of Candida species on the nipple/areola or in the milk. In this prospective cohort study, the nipple/areola skin and milk of 100 healthy breastfeeding mothers were cultured from each breast at 2 weeks postpartum, and mothers were interviewed regarding signs and symptoms associated with mammary candidosis between 2 and 9 weeks postpartum. Positive predictive value for Candida colonization was highest when there were 3 or more signs or symptoms simultaneously or when flaky or shiny skin of the nipple/areola was reported together or in combination with breast pain.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)288-295
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Human Lactation
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2004


  • Breast pain
  • Breastfeeding
  • Candida albicans
  • Diagnosis
  • Mammary candidosis
  • Nipple pain
  • Signs
  • Symptoms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


Dive into the research topics of 'Diagnostic value of signs and symptoms of mammary candidosis among lactating women'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this