Diagnosis of spontaneous canine hyperadrenocorticism: 2012 acvim consensus statement (small animal)

E. N. Behrend, H. S. Kooistra, Richard W Nelson, C. E. Reusch, J. C. Scott-Moncrieff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

136 Scopus citations


This report offers a consensus opinion on the diagnosis of spontaneous canine hyperadrenocorticism. The possibility that a patient has hyperadrenocorticism is based on the history and physical examination. Endocrine tests should be performed only when clinical signs consistent with HAC are present. None of the biochemical screening or differentiating tests for hyperadrenocorticism are perfect. Imaging can also play a role. Awareness of hyperadrenocorticism has heightened over time. Thus, case presentation is more subtle. Due to the changes in manifestations as well as test technology the Panel believes that references ranges should be reestablished. The role of cortisol precursors and sex hormones in causing a syndrome of occult hyperadrenocorticism remains unclear.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1292-1304
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2013


  • Adrenal cortex
  • Cushing's syndrome
  • Dog
  • Pituitary

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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