Diagnosis and treatment of Sarcocystis neurona-induced myositis in a free-ranging California sea lion

Daphne P. Carlson-Bremer, Frances M D Gulland, Christine K Johnson, Kathleen M. Colegrove, William G. van Bonn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Case Description: An underweight, lethargic adult female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) became stranded along the California shore and was captured and transported to a rehabilitation hospital for assessment and care. Clinical Findings: Initial physical assessment revealed the sea lion was lethargic and in poor body condition. Active myositis was diagnosed on the basis of concurrent elevations in activities of alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase detected during serum biochemical analysis. Infection with Sarcocystis neurona was diagnosed after serologic titers increased 4-fold over a 3-week period. Diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of histopathologic findings, positive results on immunohistochemical staining, and results of quantitative PCR assay on biopsy specimens obtained from the diaphragm and muscles of the dorsal cervical region. Treatment and Outcome: Anticoccidial treatment was instituted with ponazuril (10 mg/ kg [4.5 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) and continued for 28 days. Prednisone (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) was administered for 2 days and then every 24 hours for 5 days to treat associated inflammation. At the end of treatment, the sea lion was clinically normal, alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase values were within reference limits, and antibody titers against S neurona had decreased 6-fold. The sea lion was released approximately 3 months after becoming stranded. Clinical Relevance: S neurona-induced myositis was diagnosed in a free-ranging California sea lion. On the basis of the successful treatment and release of this sea lion, anticoccidial treatment should be considered for marine mammals in which protozoal disease is diagnosed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)324-328
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Volume240
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2012

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Sea Lions
Sarcocystis
Sarcocystis neurona
myositis
Myositis
Otariidae
coccidiostats
creatine kinase
alanine transaminase
protozoal infections
prednisone
underweight
Creatine Kinase
Alanine Transaminase
diaphragm
marine mammals
Therapeutics
body condition
biopsy
quantitative polymerase chain reaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

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Diagnosis and treatment of Sarcocystis neurona-induced myositis in a free-ranging California sea lion. / Carlson-Bremer, Daphne P.; Gulland, Frances M D; Johnson, Christine K; Colegrove, Kathleen M.; van Bonn, William G.

In: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Vol. 240, No. 3, 01.02.2012, p. 324-328.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Carlson-Bremer, Daphne P. ; Gulland, Frances M D ; Johnson, Christine K ; Colegrove, Kathleen M. ; van Bonn, William G. / Diagnosis and treatment of Sarcocystis neurona-induced myositis in a free-ranging California sea lion. In: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2012 ; Vol. 240, No. 3. pp. 324-328.
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