Diabetic ketosis and ketoacidosis in cats: 42 cases (1980- 1995)

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Abstract

Objective - To determine clinical signs, clinicopathologic abnormalities, prevalence of concurrent disease, treatment, complications of treatment, and outcome in cats with diagnosis ketosis (DK) or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Design - Retrospective study. Animals - 42 cats with DK or DKA. Procedure - Medical records of diabetic cats with ketonuria were reviewed. Results - In 26 cats, diabetes was newly diagnosed; in 16, diabetes had been diagnosed previously and cats had been treated with insulin (n = 14) or sulfonylurea drugs (2). Common clinical findings were lethargy, anorexia, polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss. Common laboratory findings were hyperglycemia, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, low total CO2 content, hyperosmolality, high serum alanine transaminase activity, azotemia, glycosuria, and ketonuria. Concurrent disorders were identified in 39 cats and included hepatic lipidosis, cholangiohepatitis, pancreatitis, chronic renal failure, urinary tract infection, and neoplasia. Treatment of DK and DKA included administration of regular crystalline (34 cats), NPH (6), or ultralente (2) insulin, intravenous (38) or subcutaneous (4) administration of fluids, and enterall parenteral or administration of antibiotics (42). Complications during treatment included abnormalities in serum electrolyte concentrations (27 cats), hemolytic anemia (4), hypoglycemia (3), and neurologic abnormalities unrelated to hypoglycemia (2). Eleven cats died or were euthanatized during the initial hospitalization period for treatment of DK or DKA. Azotemia, metabolic acidosis, and hyperosmolality were more severe in cats that died than in cats that survived. Differences in regard to treatment or complications were not apparent between cats that died and cats that survived. The 31 cats that survived were discharged 1 to 16 days (median, 5 days) after initiation of insulin treatment. Diabetic ketosis or ketoacidosis recurred in 13 (42%) of these cats. Clinical Implications - A thorough diagnostic evaluation should be performed on cats with DK or DKA to identify concurrent disorders, formulate an appropriate treatment plan, and provide prognostic information to the owner.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)188-192
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Volume211
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1997

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Diabetic Ketoacidosis
ketosis
Cats
cats
Ketosis
ketonuria
Azotemia
uremia
insulin
hypoglycemia
Hypoglycemia
Therapeutics
Ultralente Insulin
diabetes
Hypodermoclysis
glycosuria
Lipidoses
Insulin
Glycosuria
hyponatremia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

@article{153a17ff82f24b8ca168dcb2c67b3100,
title = "Diabetic ketosis and ketoacidosis in cats: 42 cases (1980- 1995)",
abstract = "Objective - To determine clinical signs, clinicopathologic abnormalities, prevalence of concurrent disease, treatment, complications of treatment, and outcome in cats with diagnosis ketosis (DK) or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Design - Retrospective study. Animals - 42 cats with DK or DKA. Procedure - Medical records of diabetic cats with ketonuria were reviewed. Results - In 26 cats, diabetes was newly diagnosed; in 16, diabetes had been diagnosed previously and cats had been treated with insulin (n = 14) or sulfonylurea drugs (2). Common clinical findings were lethargy, anorexia, polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss. Common laboratory findings were hyperglycemia, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, low total CO2 content, hyperosmolality, high serum alanine transaminase activity, azotemia, glycosuria, and ketonuria. Concurrent disorders were identified in 39 cats and included hepatic lipidosis, cholangiohepatitis, pancreatitis, chronic renal failure, urinary tract infection, and neoplasia. Treatment of DK and DKA included administration of regular crystalline (34 cats), NPH (6), or ultralente (2) insulin, intravenous (38) or subcutaneous (4) administration of fluids, and enterall parenteral or administration of antibiotics (42). Complications during treatment included abnormalities in serum electrolyte concentrations (27 cats), hemolytic anemia (4), hypoglycemia (3), and neurologic abnormalities unrelated to hypoglycemia (2). Eleven cats died or were euthanatized during the initial hospitalization period for treatment of DK or DKA. Azotemia, metabolic acidosis, and hyperosmolality were more severe in cats that died than in cats that survived. Differences in regard to treatment or complications were not apparent between cats that died and cats that survived. The 31 cats that survived were discharged 1 to 16 days (median, 5 days) after initiation of insulin treatment. Diabetic ketosis or ketoacidosis recurred in 13 (42{\%}) of these cats. Clinical Implications - A thorough diagnostic evaluation should be performed on cats with DK or DKA to identify concurrent disorders, formulate an appropriate treatment plan, and provide prognostic information to the owner.",
author = "Bruskiewicz, {K. A.} and Nelson, {Richard W} and Feldman, {Edward C} and Griffey, {Stephen M}",
year = "1997",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "211",
pages = "188--192",
journal = "Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association",
issn = "0003-1488",
publisher = "American Veterinary Medical Association",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Diabetic ketosis and ketoacidosis in cats

T2 - 42 cases (1980- 1995)

AU - Bruskiewicz, K. A.

AU - Nelson, Richard W

AU - Feldman, Edward C

AU - Griffey, Stephen M

PY - 1997

Y1 - 1997

N2 - Objective - To determine clinical signs, clinicopathologic abnormalities, prevalence of concurrent disease, treatment, complications of treatment, and outcome in cats with diagnosis ketosis (DK) or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Design - Retrospective study. Animals - 42 cats with DK or DKA. Procedure - Medical records of diabetic cats with ketonuria were reviewed. Results - In 26 cats, diabetes was newly diagnosed; in 16, diabetes had been diagnosed previously and cats had been treated with insulin (n = 14) or sulfonylurea drugs (2). Common clinical findings were lethargy, anorexia, polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss. Common laboratory findings were hyperglycemia, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, low total CO2 content, hyperosmolality, high serum alanine transaminase activity, azotemia, glycosuria, and ketonuria. Concurrent disorders were identified in 39 cats and included hepatic lipidosis, cholangiohepatitis, pancreatitis, chronic renal failure, urinary tract infection, and neoplasia. Treatment of DK and DKA included administration of regular crystalline (34 cats), NPH (6), or ultralente (2) insulin, intravenous (38) or subcutaneous (4) administration of fluids, and enterall parenteral or administration of antibiotics (42). Complications during treatment included abnormalities in serum electrolyte concentrations (27 cats), hemolytic anemia (4), hypoglycemia (3), and neurologic abnormalities unrelated to hypoglycemia (2). Eleven cats died or were euthanatized during the initial hospitalization period for treatment of DK or DKA. Azotemia, metabolic acidosis, and hyperosmolality were more severe in cats that died than in cats that survived. Differences in regard to treatment or complications were not apparent between cats that died and cats that survived. The 31 cats that survived were discharged 1 to 16 days (median, 5 days) after initiation of insulin treatment. Diabetic ketosis or ketoacidosis recurred in 13 (42%) of these cats. Clinical Implications - A thorough diagnostic evaluation should be performed on cats with DK or DKA to identify concurrent disorders, formulate an appropriate treatment plan, and provide prognostic information to the owner.

AB - Objective - To determine clinical signs, clinicopathologic abnormalities, prevalence of concurrent disease, treatment, complications of treatment, and outcome in cats with diagnosis ketosis (DK) or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Design - Retrospective study. Animals - 42 cats with DK or DKA. Procedure - Medical records of diabetic cats with ketonuria were reviewed. Results - In 26 cats, diabetes was newly diagnosed; in 16, diabetes had been diagnosed previously and cats had been treated with insulin (n = 14) or sulfonylurea drugs (2). Common clinical findings were lethargy, anorexia, polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss. Common laboratory findings were hyperglycemia, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, low total CO2 content, hyperosmolality, high serum alanine transaminase activity, azotemia, glycosuria, and ketonuria. Concurrent disorders were identified in 39 cats and included hepatic lipidosis, cholangiohepatitis, pancreatitis, chronic renal failure, urinary tract infection, and neoplasia. Treatment of DK and DKA included administration of regular crystalline (34 cats), NPH (6), or ultralente (2) insulin, intravenous (38) or subcutaneous (4) administration of fluids, and enterall parenteral or administration of antibiotics (42). Complications during treatment included abnormalities in serum electrolyte concentrations (27 cats), hemolytic anemia (4), hypoglycemia (3), and neurologic abnormalities unrelated to hypoglycemia (2). Eleven cats died or were euthanatized during the initial hospitalization period for treatment of DK or DKA. Azotemia, metabolic acidosis, and hyperosmolality were more severe in cats that died than in cats that survived. Differences in regard to treatment or complications were not apparent between cats that died and cats that survived. The 31 cats that survived were discharged 1 to 16 days (median, 5 days) after initiation of insulin treatment. Diabetic ketosis or ketoacidosis recurred in 13 (42%) of these cats. Clinical Implications - A thorough diagnostic evaluation should be performed on cats with DK or DKA to identify concurrent disorders, formulate an appropriate treatment plan, and provide prognostic information to the owner.

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