The diabetic state confers an increased propensity to accelerated atherogenesis. Inflammation is pivotal in atherosclerosis; in addition to the established risk factors, inflammation appears to play a pivotal role in diabetes and its complications. Evidence for increased inflammation includes: increased levels of plasma C-reactive protein, the prototypic marker of inflammation; increased levels of plasminogen-activator inhibitor; increased monocyte superoxide and proinflammatory cytokine release (IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α); increased monocyte adhesion to endothelium; increased NF-B activity; and increased Toll-like receptor 2 and 4 expression and activity in diabetes. Thus, it appears that both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are proinflammatory states and that these could contribute to increased diabetic vasculopathies.
- C-reactive protein
- Toll-like receptor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism