Dexmedetomidine reduces acute kidney injury after endovascular aortic repair of Stanford type B aortic dissection: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study

Xi sheng Shan, Hui rong Dai, Dan Zhao, Bi wen Yang, Xiao mei Feng, Hong Liu, Ke Peng, Fu hai Ji

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Study objective: To determine the effect of dexmedetomidine on acute kidney injury (AKI) following endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) for Stanford type B aortic dissection (TBAD). Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study. Setting: University Hospital. Patients: 102 TBAD patients undergoing EVAR procedures were enrolled. Patients with dissection involving aortic arch or renal artery were excluded. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to a dexmedetomidine group (intravenous dexmedetomidine 0.4 μg/kg/h immediately after anesthesia induction and 0.1 μg/kg/h after extubation, which was maintained until 24 h) or a normal saline control group. Measurements: The primary outcome was the incidence of AKI within the first two days after surgery, based on the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. The secondary outcomes included serum cystatin C and estimated glomerular filtration rate on postoperative days 1, 2, and 7, and in-hospital need for renal replacement therapy (RRT). Long-term outcomes included RRT and all-cause mortality. Main results: Ninety-eight patients completed the study (dexmedetomidine, n = 48; control, n = 50). AKIN stage 1 AKI occurred in 3/48 (6.3%) patients receiving dexmedetomidine, compared with 11/50 (22%) patients receiving normal saline (odds ratio = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.89, P = 0.041). This difference remained significant after adjusting for baseline covariates (adjusted odds ratio = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.84; P = 0.028). Dexmedetomidine led to a lower serum cystatin C on postoperative day 1 (median [IQR] mg/L: 1.31 [1.02–1.72] vs. 1.58 [1.28–1.96]). There were no between-group differences in other secondary or long-term outcomes. During the follow-up (median = 28.4 months), 1 patient in the dexmedetomidine group and 3 patients in the control group required RRT. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine reduced the incidence of AKI in TBAD patients after EVAR procedures. The long-term benefits of dexmedetomidine in this patient population warrant further investigation. Trial registration: ChiCTR-IPR-15006372.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number110498
JournalJournal of Clinical Anesthesia
Volume75
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Acute kidney injury
  • Dexmedetomidine
  • Endovascular aortic repair
  • Renal function
  • Stanford type B aortic dissection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

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