The potential developmental toxicity of fleroxacin was studied (Phase I) and its pharmacokinetics was compared to ciprofloxacin, temafloxacin, and norfloxacin (Phase II) in the cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis). Phase I studies involved oral administration of fleroxacin (35 and 70 mg/kg-day) during Gestational Days (GD) 20-34 or 35-49 (N = 10/group); controls received vehicle only. Increased maternal toxicity (weight loss, anorexia, emesis) and embryolethality (4/10, 40%; GD 20-34) were observed at 70 mg/kg-day. Urinary excretion of estrogen conjugates was reduced for females with nonviable pregnancies during both treatment periods (GD 20-34 and 35-49), although steroid hormone levels in serum remained unchanged during treatment; no malformations or growth retardation were observed at gross examination. For Phase II studies, the pharmacokinetics of fleroxacin (70 mg/kg), ciprofloxacin (100 mg/kg), temafloxacin (100 mg/kg), and norfloxacin (150 mg/kg) were studied during a 3-day oral treatment regimen in the nonpregnant (N = 12; 3/quinolone) and pregnant (N = 3; fleroxacin only) macaque. Serial blood samples were collected on the first and third days of treatment in all animals; for pregnant females, the conceptus was removed on GD 31 for analysis of fleroxacin levels. Marked differences between the quinolones were noted in the AUC0-24 hr for nonpregnant females. Based on AUC0-24 hr on the first day of treatment, the rank order was fleroxacin > temafloxacin > ciprofloxacin > norfloxacin. On the third day of treatment, the rank order for exposure was temafloxacin> fleroxacin > ciprofloxacin > norfloxacin. Overall, results indicated (1) no marked differences in pharmacokinetic parameters in pregnant versus nonpregnant females, (2) fleroxacin levels in embryonic tissues were similar to maternal plasma levels, and (3) there was a correlation between exposure and embryolethal doses for all fluoroquinolones which resulted in embryolethality except norfloxacin.
ASJC Scopus subject areas