Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the analysis of the thiocarbamate herbicide molinate

Shirley J. Gee, Toru Miyamoto, Marvin H. Goodrow, Dan Buster, Bruce D. Hammock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

78 Scopus citations


The development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the herbicide molinate (Ordram, S-ethyl hexahydroazepine-1-carbothioate) is described. By a thiol replacement reaction of thiocarbamate sulfones, several haptens were synthesized. These haptens were coupled to carrier proteins via mixed-anhydride and diazotization procedures. Antibodies raised against these antigens were screened for sensitivity and specificity for molinate. An assay is described with a limit of detectability of 3 ng/mL that is specific for molinate with some cross-reactivity (15%) to molinate sulfone. Other thiocarbamate pesticides had cross-reactivities of <1.4%. Propylene glycol, as a carrier solvent, interfered in the ELISA at concentrations of 12.5% and greater, whereas acetonitrile had no effect at 12.5% but had increased and then decreased absorbances relative to control at 5% and 25%, respectively. The half-lives of molinate in a laboratory study as measured by liquid scintillation counting and ELISA were 2.6 and 2.2 days, respectively. Paired t statistics on this data gave a significant correlation with 0.05 < p < 0.02. Techniques allowing current sample preparation methods to be easily adapted for use with ELISA analysis are also described.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)863-870
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1988

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)


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