Development of a sensitive enzyme immunoassay for the detection of phenyl-β-o-thioglucuronide in human urine

Norbert Staimer, Shirley J. Gee, Bruce D. Hammock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Immunoassays for the measurement of glucuronides in human urine can be a helpful tool for the assessment of human exposure to toxic chemicals. Therefore an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the specific detection of phenyl-β-D-thioglucuronide was developed. The immunoconjugate was formed by coupling p-aminophenyl-β-D-thioglucuronide to the carrier protein thyroglobulin leaving an exposed glucuronic acid. The hapten-protein conjugate was adsorbed to gold colloids in order to enhance the immunogenic effect. Rabbits were injected with the immunogold conjugates to raise polyclonal antibodies. The resulting competitive assay showed an inhibition by phenyl-β-D-thioglucuronide at sample concentrations of 23.0 ± 1.3 ng/mL (50% B/B0) and a high cross-reactivity to p-aminophenyl-β-D-thioglucuronide (120%). Little cross-reactivities (< 2%) were observed for potential urinary cross reactants. In addition human urine samples were incubated with β-glucuronidase in order to investigate the EIA for specific matrix effects. An integration of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and EIA was developed in an attempt to decrease the matrix effects and increase the sensitivity of the overall method. The hyphenated technique HPEC-EIA may be used to monitor human exposure to toxic thiophenol which is excreted by mammals as urinary phenyl thioglucuronide.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)273-279
Number of pages7
JournalFresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - 2001

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry


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