Development of a retrobulbar injection technique for ocular surgery and analgesia in dogs

Peter J. Accola, Ellison Bentley, Lesley J. Smith, Lisa J. Forrest, Cheryl A. Baumel, Christopher J Murphy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Scopus citations


Objective - To develop and compare 3 techniques for retrobulbar injection of local anesthetic agents for ocular surgery and analgesia in dogs. Design - Prospective study. Animals-17 dogs (including 9 cadavers). Procedure - Inferior-temporal palpebral (ITP), perimandibular, and combined superior-inferior peribulbar injection techniques were compared by assessing the distribution of latex after injection into the orbits of 5 canine cadavers; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of the distribution of contrast agent after injection in the retrobulbar space of 4 canine cadavers; and assessment of the efficacy and MRI evaluation of the anatomic distribution of injections of a lidocaine-contrast agent mixture in 4 anesthetized, nonrecovery dogs. By use of the preferred technique (ITP), the ocular effects of lidocaine anesthesia were evaluated in 4 dogs; during a 2-week period after treatment, dogs underwent ophthalmic examination, Schirmer tear testing (STT), intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, and Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry. Results - Of the 3 techniques, the ITP technique was the preferred method for retrobulbar administration of anesthetic agent in dogs because it was efficacious (pupil dilation and central rotation of the globe achieved in all eyes), easiest to perform, and provided thorough coverage of the intraconal retrobulbar space without complication. During the 2-week follow-up period, the ITP injection did not significantly affect STT, IOP or Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry values in dogs. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - In dogs, retrobulbar administration of anesthetic agents via the ITP technique is a potential alternative to systemic administration of neuromuscular blocking agents for ophthalmic surgery and provides the additional benefit of local ocular analgesia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)220-225
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jul 15 2006
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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