Development of a mathematical model that predicts optimal muscle activation patterns by using brief trains

Jun Ding, Anthony S. Wexler, Stuart A. Binder-Macleod

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Scopus citations


Because muscles must be repetitively activated during functional electrical stimulation, it is desirable to identify the stimulation pattern that produces the most force. Previous experimental work has shown that the optimal pattern contains an initial high-frequency burst of pulses (i.e., an initial doublet or triplet) followed by a low, constant-frequency portion. Pattern optimization is particularly challenging, because a muscle's contractile characteristics and, therefore, the optimal pattern change under different physiological conditions and are different for each person. This work describes the continued development and testing of a mathematical model that predicts isometric forces from fresh and fatigued muscles in response to brief trains of electrical pulses. By use of this model and an optimization algorithm, stimulation patterns that produced maximum forces from each subject were identified.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)917-925
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Applied Physiology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2000
Externally publishedYes


  • Doublets
  • Fatigue
  • Functional electrical stimulation
  • Human quadriceps femoris muscle
  • Variable-frequency trains

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Endocrinology
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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