The objective of this study was to develop a three-dimensional (3D) quasi-static rigid body canine pelvic limb computer model simulating a cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) intact and CrCL-deficient stifle during walking stance to describe stifle biomechanics. The model was based on a five-year-old neutered male Golden Retriever (33 kg) with no orthopedic or neurologic disease. Skeletal geometry and ligament anatomy determined from computed tomography (CT), optimized muscle forces, motion capture kinematics, and force platform ground reaction forces were used to develop the model. Ligament loads, tibial translation, tibial rotation, and femoromeniscal contact forces were compared across the intact and CrCL-deficient stifle. The CrCL was found to be the primary intact stifle load-bearing ligament, and the caudal cruciate ligament was the primary CrCL-deficient stifle load-bearing ligament. Normalized tibial translation and rotation were 0.61 mm/kg and 0.14 degrees/kg, respectively. Our model confirmed that the CrCL stabilizes the intact stifle and limits tibial translation and rotation. Model verification was confirmed through agreement with experimentally measured kinematics and previous in vivo, in vitro, and mathematical model studies. Parametric analysis indicated outcome measure sensitivity to ligament pre-strain. Computer modeling could be useful to further investigate stifle biomechanics associated with surgical stabilization techniques.
- Canine stifle (knee) computer model
- Cranial cruciate ligament deficiency
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering