Development and validation of a photonumeric scale for evaluation of facial skin texture

Lisa Donofrio, Alastair Carruthers, Bhushan Hardas, Diane K. Murphy, Jean Carruthers, Derek Jones, Jonathan M Sykes, Lela Creutz, Ann Marx, Sara Dill

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Scopus citations


Background: A validated scale is needed for objective and reproducible comparisons of facial skin roughness before and after aesthetic treatment in practice and in clinical studies. Objective: To describe the development and validation of the 5-point photonumeric Allergan Skin Roughness Scale. Methods: The scale was developed to include an assessment guide, verbal descriptors, morphed images, and real subject images for each grade. The clinical significance of a 1-point score difference was evaluated in a review of image pairs representing varying differences in severity. Interrater and intrarater reliability was evaluated in a live-subject validation study (N = 290) completed during 2 sessions occurring 3 weeks apart. Results: A score difference of ≥1 point was shown to reflect a clinically meaningful difference (mean [95% confidence interval] absolute score difference 1.09 [0.96-1.23] for clinically different image pairs and 0.53 [0.38-0.67] for not clinically different pairs). Intrarater agreement between the 2 validation sessions was almost perfect (weighted kappa = 0.83). Interrater agreement was almost perfect during the second rating session (0.81, primary end point). Conclusion: The Allergan Skin Roughness Scale is a validated and reliable scale for physician rating of midface skin roughness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S219-S226
JournalDermatologic Surgery
StatePublished - 2016


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Dermatology

Cite this

Donofrio, L., Carruthers, A., Hardas, B., Murphy, D. K., Carruthers, J., Jones, D., Sykes, J. M., Creutz, L., Marx, A., & Dill, S. (2016). Development and validation of a photonumeric scale for evaluation of facial skin texture. Dermatologic Surgery, 42, S219-S226.