Cotinine is a major metabolite of nicotine and serves as an important biomarker of tobacco smoke exposure. To monitor exposure to tobacco smoke or nicotine, a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for cotinine was developed. The test had an 1-50 of between 0.5 and 1.0 ng/ml for cotinine and about 500-fold less affinity for nicotine. Few matrix effects were not detectable in human saliva, although relatively small matrix effects (1-50 for cotinine, 2.8 ng/ml) were observed in human serum and urine. The test accurately measured the levels of cotinine in NI5T standards in freeze-dried human urine derivative material (r =9999) indicating its reliability for measurement of cotinine. The test readily detected low levels (5-500 nglml) of cotinine in human saliva and serum samples. Also, the levels of cotinine in plasma and urine samples from smoke-exposed mice and rats could be rapidly analyzed for cotinine. This ELISA is therefore a sensitive and accurate test for the determination of cotinine in plasma, serum, saliva, and urine samples from humans and animals, and can be successfully used for monitoring and quantifying exposure to tobacco smoke or nicotine.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis