Determination of grayanotoxins in biological samples by LC-MS/MS

Dirk M. Holstege, Birgit Puschner, Tuong Le

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


A rapid LC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantitative determination of grayanotoxins I, II, and III in rumen contents, feces, and urine. The grayanotoxins were extracted from solid samples with methanol. The methanol extract was diluted with water and cleaned up using a reversed phase solid phase extraction column. HPLC separation was performed by reversed phase HPLC using a gradient of water and methanol containing 1% acetic acid. Determination was by positive ion electrospray ionization and ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. Grayanotoxin I quantitation was based on fragmentation of the sodium adduct ion at m/z 435 to a product ion at m/z 375. Grayanotoxins II and III were quantitated on the basis of fragmentation of the ion at m/z 335 to the product ion at m/z 299. The method detection limits were 0.2 μg/g in rumen contents and feces and 0.05 μg/g in urine. Fortifications at the detection limits and 10 times the detection limits of bovine rumen contents, caprine feces, and ovine urine were recovered in the range 80-114%. The diagnostic utility of the method was tested by analyzing samples submitted to the veterinary toxicology laboratory.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1648-1651
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2001


  • Grayanotoxin
  • HPLC
  • LC-MS
  • Mass spectrometry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)


Dive into the research topics of 'Determination of grayanotoxins in biological samples by LC-MS/MS'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this