Detection of Toxoplasma gondii-like oocysts in cat feces and estimates of the environmental oocyst burden

Haydee A. Dabritz, Melissa A. Miller, Edward R Atwill, Ian Gardner, Christian M. Leutenegger, Ann C. Melli, Patricia A Conrad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

90 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective - To estimate the analytic sensitivity of microscopic detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and the environmental loading of T gondii oocysts on the basis of prevalence of shedding by owned and unowned cats. Design - Cross-sectional survey. Sample Population - 326 fecal samples from cats. Procedures - Fecal samples were collected from cat shelters, veterinary clinics, cat-owning households, and outdoor locations and tested via ZnSO4 fecal flotation. Results - Only 3 (0.9%) samples of feces from 326 cats in the Morro Bay area of California contained T gondii-like oocysts. On the basis of the estimated tonnage of cat feces deposited outdoors in this area, the annual burden in the environment was estimated to be 94 to 4,671 oocysts/m2 (9 to 434 oocysts/ft2). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Despite the low prevalence and short duration of T gondii oocyst shedding by cats detected in the present and former surveys, the sheer numbers of oocysts shed by cats during initial infection could lead to substantial environmental contamination. Veterinarians may wish to make cat owners aware of the potential threats to human and wildlife health posed by cats permitted to defecate outdoors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1676-1684
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Volume231
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2007

Fingerprint

Oocysts
Toxoplasma
Toxoplasma gondii
oocysts
Feces
Cats
feces
cats
Animal Hospitals
sampling
Veterinarians
veterinary clinics
cross-sectional studies
veterinarians
households
wildlife
Cross-Sectional Studies
pollution
duration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Detection of Toxoplasma gondii-like oocysts in cat feces and estimates of the environmental oocyst burden. / Dabritz, Haydee A.; Miller, Melissa A.; Atwill, Edward R; Gardner, Ian; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Melli, Ann C.; Conrad, Patricia A.

In: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Vol. 231, No. 11, 01.12.2007, p. 1676-1684.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{da5a2263798e4ed8ae30f5eb81170b8b,
title = "Detection of Toxoplasma gondii-like oocysts in cat feces and estimates of the environmental oocyst burden",
abstract = "Objective - To estimate the analytic sensitivity of microscopic detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and the environmental loading of T gondii oocysts on the basis of prevalence of shedding by owned and unowned cats. Design - Cross-sectional survey. Sample Population - 326 fecal samples from cats. Procedures - Fecal samples were collected from cat shelters, veterinary clinics, cat-owning households, and outdoor locations and tested via ZnSO4 fecal flotation. Results - Only 3 (0.9{\%}) samples of feces from 326 cats in the Morro Bay area of California contained T gondii-like oocysts. On the basis of the estimated tonnage of cat feces deposited outdoors in this area, the annual burden in the environment was estimated to be 94 to 4,671 oocysts/m2 (9 to 434 oocysts/ft2). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Despite the low prevalence and short duration of T gondii oocyst shedding by cats detected in the present and former surveys, the sheer numbers of oocysts shed by cats during initial infection could lead to substantial environmental contamination. Veterinarians may wish to make cat owners aware of the potential threats to human and wildlife health posed by cats permitted to defecate outdoors.",
author = "Dabritz, {Haydee A.} and Miller, {Melissa A.} and Atwill, {Edward R} and Ian Gardner and Leutenegger, {Christian M.} and Melli, {Ann C.} and Conrad, {Patricia A}",
year = "2007",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.2460/javma.231.11.1676",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "231",
pages = "1676--1684",
journal = "Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association",
issn = "0003-1488",
publisher = "American Veterinary Medical Association",
number = "11",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Detection of Toxoplasma gondii-like oocysts in cat feces and estimates of the environmental oocyst burden

AU - Dabritz, Haydee A.

AU - Miller, Melissa A.

AU - Atwill, Edward R

AU - Gardner, Ian

AU - Leutenegger, Christian M.

AU - Melli, Ann C.

AU - Conrad, Patricia A

PY - 2007/12/1

Y1 - 2007/12/1

N2 - Objective - To estimate the analytic sensitivity of microscopic detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and the environmental loading of T gondii oocysts on the basis of prevalence of shedding by owned and unowned cats. Design - Cross-sectional survey. Sample Population - 326 fecal samples from cats. Procedures - Fecal samples were collected from cat shelters, veterinary clinics, cat-owning households, and outdoor locations and tested via ZnSO4 fecal flotation. Results - Only 3 (0.9%) samples of feces from 326 cats in the Morro Bay area of California contained T gondii-like oocysts. On the basis of the estimated tonnage of cat feces deposited outdoors in this area, the annual burden in the environment was estimated to be 94 to 4,671 oocysts/m2 (9 to 434 oocysts/ft2). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Despite the low prevalence and short duration of T gondii oocyst shedding by cats detected in the present and former surveys, the sheer numbers of oocysts shed by cats during initial infection could lead to substantial environmental contamination. Veterinarians may wish to make cat owners aware of the potential threats to human and wildlife health posed by cats permitted to defecate outdoors.

AB - Objective - To estimate the analytic sensitivity of microscopic detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts and the environmental loading of T gondii oocysts on the basis of prevalence of shedding by owned and unowned cats. Design - Cross-sectional survey. Sample Population - 326 fecal samples from cats. Procedures - Fecal samples were collected from cat shelters, veterinary clinics, cat-owning households, and outdoor locations and tested via ZnSO4 fecal flotation. Results - Only 3 (0.9%) samples of feces from 326 cats in the Morro Bay area of California contained T gondii-like oocysts. On the basis of the estimated tonnage of cat feces deposited outdoors in this area, the annual burden in the environment was estimated to be 94 to 4,671 oocysts/m2 (9 to 434 oocysts/ft2). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - Despite the low prevalence and short duration of T gondii oocyst shedding by cats detected in the present and former surveys, the sheer numbers of oocysts shed by cats during initial infection could lead to substantial environmental contamination. Veterinarians may wish to make cat owners aware of the potential threats to human and wildlife health posed by cats permitted to defecate outdoors.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=37349070316&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=37349070316&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.2460/javma.231.11.1676

DO - 10.2460/javma.231.11.1676

M3 - Article

C2 - 18052801

AN - SCOPUS:37349070316

VL - 231

SP - 1676

EP - 1684

JO - Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

JF - Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SN - 0003-1488

IS - 11

ER -