Detection of sarcocystis neurona in the brain of a grant's zebra (equus burchelli bohmi)

Antoinette E. Marsh, Mary Denver, Frazer I. Hill, M. R. McElhaney, J. G. Trupkiewicz, James Stewart, Lisa A Tell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

An 8-yr-old intact male Grant's zebra (Equus burchelli bohmi) was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of the University of California-Davis after being found in the owner's pasture obtunded and in lateral recumbency. The animal was hypothermic, weak, and unwilling to rise. There was no evidence of trauma, and the zebra had seemed normal the preceding evening. There was no extensor rigidity, and cranial nerve reflexes were normal. Flexor and extensor reflexes were weak upon initial examination. A complete blood count and serum biochemistry analysis revealed a mild leukocytosis, hyperfibrinogenemia, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hypocalcemia, and hypoalbuminemia. Urinalysis was normal, and a urine toxicology screen for alkaloids was negative. No toxic substance was found in the hay or pasture grasses although the owner reported the presence of yellow star thistle and mushrooms in the pasture. The cerebrospinal fluid cytologic and biochemical analyses were normal, but antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona were detected. The zebra died despite aggressive supportive therapy over a 4-day period. The necropsy demonstrated severe gastrointestinal nematodiasis that could account for hypoalbuminemia and electrolyte abnormalities. Histopathologic examination of the nervous system revealed focal areas of perivascular cuffing in the brainstem that were comprised mainly of lymphocytes, monocytes, and plasma cells. Immunohistochemical staining identified the presence of S. neurona merozoites associated with the lesions. This zebra probably died from severe endoparasitism that resulted in malabsorption, weakness, and recumbency rather than from encephalitis associated with S. neurona merozoites. Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis has not been reported previously in nondomestic equids.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)82-86
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Volume31
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2000

Fingerprint

Equus burchelli
Sarcocystis
Sarcocystis neurona
zebras
Equidae
brain
pasture
merozoites
pastures
reflexes
Merozoites
Hypoalbuminemia
Brain
equine protozoal myeloencephalitis
Centaurea solstitialis
encephalitis
hyponatremia
Reflex
hypocalcemia
urinalysis

Keywords

  • Case report
  • Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis
  • Equus burchelii bohmi
  • Grant's zebra
  • Sarcocystis neurona

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Marsh, A. E., Denver, M., Hill, F. I., McElhaney, M. R., Trupkiewicz, J. G., Stewart, J., & Tell, L. A. (2000). Detection of sarcocystis neurona in the brain of a grant's zebra (equus burchelli bohmi). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, 31(1), 82-86.

Detection of sarcocystis neurona in the brain of a grant's zebra (equus burchelli bohmi). / Marsh, Antoinette E.; Denver, Mary; Hill, Frazer I.; McElhaney, M. R.; Trupkiewicz, J. G.; Stewart, James; Tell, Lisa A.

In: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, Vol. 31, No. 1, 2000, p. 82-86.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Marsh, AE, Denver, M, Hill, FI, McElhaney, MR, Trupkiewicz, JG, Stewart, J & Tell, LA 2000, 'Detection of sarcocystis neurona in the brain of a grant's zebra (equus burchelli bohmi)', Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 82-86.
Marsh AE, Denver M, Hill FI, McElhaney MR, Trupkiewicz JG, Stewart J et al. Detection of sarcocystis neurona in the brain of a grant's zebra (equus burchelli bohmi). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2000;31(1):82-86.
Marsh, Antoinette E. ; Denver, Mary ; Hill, Frazer I. ; McElhaney, M. R. ; Trupkiewicz, J. G. ; Stewart, James ; Tell, Lisa A. / Detection of sarcocystis neurona in the brain of a grant's zebra (equus burchelli bohmi). In: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 2000 ; Vol. 31, No. 1. pp. 82-86.
@article{97e5cecb28624c6493b0cd92a6e26935,
title = "Detection of sarcocystis neurona in the brain of a grant's zebra (equus burchelli bohmi)",
abstract = "An 8-yr-old intact male Grant's zebra (Equus burchelli bohmi) was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of the University of California-Davis after being found in the owner's pasture obtunded and in lateral recumbency. The animal was hypothermic, weak, and unwilling to rise. There was no evidence of trauma, and the zebra had seemed normal the preceding evening. There was no extensor rigidity, and cranial nerve reflexes were normal. Flexor and extensor reflexes were weak upon initial examination. A complete blood count and serum biochemistry analysis revealed a mild leukocytosis, hyperfibrinogenemia, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hypocalcemia, and hypoalbuminemia. Urinalysis was normal, and a urine toxicology screen for alkaloids was negative. No toxic substance was found in the hay or pasture grasses although the owner reported the presence of yellow star thistle and mushrooms in the pasture. The cerebrospinal fluid cytologic and biochemical analyses were normal, but antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona were detected. The zebra died despite aggressive supportive therapy over a 4-day period. The necropsy demonstrated severe gastrointestinal nematodiasis that could account for hypoalbuminemia and electrolyte abnormalities. Histopathologic examination of the nervous system revealed focal areas of perivascular cuffing in the brainstem that were comprised mainly of lymphocytes, monocytes, and plasma cells. Immunohistochemical staining identified the presence of S. neurona merozoites associated with the lesions. This zebra probably died from severe endoparasitism that resulted in malabsorption, weakness, and recumbency rather than from encephalitis associated with S. neurona merozoites. Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis has not been reported previously in nondomestic equids.",
keywords = "Case report, Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, Equus burchelii bohmi, Grant's zebra, Sarcocystis neurona",
author = "Marsh, {Antoinette E.} and Mary Denver and Hill, {Frazer I.} and McElhaney, {M. R.} and Trupkiewicz, {J. G.} and James Stewart and Tell, {Lisa A}",
year = "2000",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "31",
pages = "82--86",
journal = "Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine",
issn = "1042-7260",
publisher = "American Association of Zoo Veterinarians",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Detection of sarcocystis neurona in the brain of a grant's zebra (equus burchelli bohmi)

AU - Marsh, Antoinette E.

AU - Denver, Mary

AU - Hill, Frazer I.

AU - McElhaney, M. R.

AU - Trupkiewicz, J. G.

AU - Stewart, James

AU - Tell, Lisa A

PY - 2000

Y1 - 2000

N2 - An 8-yr-old intact male Grant's zebra (Equus burchelli bohmi) was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of the University of California-Davis after being found in the owner's pasture obtunded and in lateral recumbency. The animal was hypothermic, weak, and unwilling to rise. There was no evidence of trauma, and the zebra had seemed normal the preceding evening. There was no extensor rigidity, and cranial nerve reflexes were normal. Flexor and extensor reflexes were weak upon initial examination. A complete blood count and serum biochemistry analysis revealed a mild leukocytosis, hyperfibrinogenemia, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hypocalcemia, and hypoalbuminemia. Urinalysis was normal, and a urine toxicology screen for alkaloids was negative. No toxic substance was found in the hay or pasture grasses although the owner reported the presence of yellow star thistle and mushrooms in the pasture. The cerebrospinal fluid cytologic and biochemical analyses were normal, but antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona were detected. The zebra died despite aggressive supportive therapy over a 4-day period. The necropsy demonstrated severe gastrointestinal nematodiasis that could account for hypoalbuminemia and electrolyte abnormalities. Histopathologic examination of the nervous system revealed focal areas of perivascular cuffing in the brainstem that were comprised mainly of lymphocytes, monocytes, and plasma cells. Immunohistochemical staining identified the presence of S. neurona merozoites associated with the lesions. This zebra probably died from severe endoparasitism that resulted in malabsorption, weakness, and recumbency rather than from encephalitis associated with S. neurona merozoites. Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis has not been reported previously in nondomestic equids.

AB - An 8-yr-old intact male Grant's zebra (Equus burchelli bohmi) was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of the University of California-Davis after being found in the owner's pasture obtunded and in lateral recumbency. The animal was hypothermic, weak, and unwilling to rise. There was no evidence of trauma, and the zebra had seemed normal the preceding evening. There was no extensor rigidity, and cranial nerve reflexes were normal. Flexor and extensor reflexes were weak upon initial examination. A complete blood count and serum biochemistry analysis revealed a mild leukocytosis, hyperfibrinogenemia, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hypocalcemia, and hypoalbuminemia. Urinalysis was normal, and a urine toxicology screen for alkaloids was negative. No toxic substance was found in the hay or pasture grasses although the owner reported the presence of yellow star thistle and mushrooms in the pasture. The cerebrospinal fluid cytologic and biochemical analyses were normal, but antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona were detected. The zebra died despite aggressive supportive therapy over a 4-day period. The necropsy demonstrated severe gastrointestinal nematodiasis that could account for hypoalbuminemia and electrolyte abnormalities. Histopathologic examination of the nervous system revealed focal areas of perivascular cuffing in the brainstem that were comprised mainly of lymphocytes, monocytes, and plasma cells. Immunohistochemical staining identified the presence of S. neurona merozoites associated with the lesions. This zebra probably died from severe endoparasitism that resulted in malabsorption, weakness, and recumbency rather than from encephalitis associated with S. neurona merozoites. Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis has not been reported previously in nondomestic equids.

KW - Case report

KW - Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis

KW - Equus burchelii bohmi

KW - Grant's zebra

KW - Sarcocystis neurona

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0034149254&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0034149254&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 10884130

AN - SCOPUS:0034149254

VL - 31

SP - 82

EP - 86

JO - Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine

JF - Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine

SN - 1042-7260

IS - 1

ER -