Detection of enteric pathogens by the nodosome

A. Marijke Keestra, Andreas J Baumler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein (NOD)1 and NOD2 participate in signaling pathways that detect pathogen-induced processes, such as the presence of peptidoglycan fragments in the host cell cytosol, as danger signals. Recent work suggests that peptidoglycan fragments activate NOD1 indirectly, through activation of the small Rho GTPase Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1). Excessive activation of small Rho GTPases by virulence factors of enteric pathogens also triggers the NOD1 signaling pathway. Many enteric pathogens use virulence factors that alter the activation state of small Rho GTPases, thereby manipulating the host cell cytoskeleton of intestinal epithelial cells to promote bacterial attachment or entry. These data suggest that the NOD1 signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells provides an important sentinel function for detecting 'breaking and entering' by enteric pathogens.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)123-130
Number of pages8
JournalTrends in Immunology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2014


  • Nod-like receptors
  • Pathogen detection
  • Patterns of pathogenesis
  • Type III secretions system

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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